Monday, September 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ is a famous novel written by John Steinbeck; Steinbeck was born in 1902 in Salinas Valley, California and he set Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ during the Great Depression. He based the storyline on his personal experiences and ventures. The novel was later adapted into a motion picture starring John Malkovich and Gary Sinise. This essay will examine various aspects of the film; the films treatment of the story, characterisation, camera work, symbolism, special effects and the use of music. The film does not follow the book exactly as several scenes from the novel have been edited to add climax and tension. For example some important aspects of the book have been changed. The first change is George and Lennie going into the bossÃ¢â¬â¢ house to meet him instead of the boss meeting them in the bunkhouse; George doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t scold Lennie for talking in front of the boss when he strictly told not to say a word; George is introduced to Slim over dinner but in the book they first meet in the bunkhouse; George comes into CrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ room to get Lennie while in the book Candy joins Lennie and Crooks and they all discuss the dream, then even Crooks starts to believe in the dream and asks if he can be part of it. Some scenes from the book are not included at all, for example CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t threaten Crooks in the film whereas in the book she threatens to frame Crooks for rape purely out of spite because the men reject her company. The hallucinations that Lennie has of Aunt Clara and the rabbit telling him how bad he has been in the last chapter of the novel are not portrayed in the film and when Slim and the other men console George after he has killed Lennie is not shown in the film either. Although some scenes have been cut from the original storyline others scenes have been added to the film. For example the opening of the film which shows the girl running in the red dress and the men chasing George and Lennie (this is only hinted at in the book); the train scene where George and Lennie jump on the train escaping to Salinas Valley and grabbing their work tickets in town; the work scenes which show the power of LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s strength; CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife talking to George alone in the barn; Curley practicing his boxing skills on his punching bag and George and Lennie speaking to CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife after they have just left CrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ room. This treatment of the story shows us that not all scenes in a novel makes a good or interesting scene in a film so a novel can not just be filmed as it is, it often needs changing to make it a film the audience wants to watch. In film the director usually tries to bring a romantic element into the film to keep the audience guessing, will the couple get together or not? For example, there is an underlying sexual tension between George and CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife in a couple of scenes. The characterisation is fairly faithful to the way they are described in the book. The way Lennie is portrayed is as a large, tall man with the strength of a giant. He is shown to be innocent like a child but as strong as an ox. The actor playing Lennie, John Malkovich matches LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s description in the book, Ã¢â¬Å"A huge man, shapeless of face, with large, pale eyes, with wide, sloping shouldersÃ¢â¬ . Gary Sinise also fits GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s physical description, Ã¢â¬Å"Small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp, strong featuresÃ¢â¬ . He is shown to be the brains and Lennie the brawn. He is like the responsible father of Lennie, always taking care of him and trying to keep him out of trouble e.g. the scene where George gets Lennie out of Weed because he got into serious trouble for touching a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s red dress. Candy, the swamper, is faithful to his description in the book, Ã¢â¬Å"A tall, stoop-shouldered old manÃ¢â¬ and so is his character. Curley, the BossÃ¢â¬â¢ son is described as, Ã¢â¬Å"A thin young man with a brown face, with brown eyes and a head of tightly curled hairÃ¢â¬ (hence the name) but the actor in the film has straight hair. However some characters differ from the way they are described in the book. In the book Slim, the jerk line skinner, is described as Ã¢â¬Å"Prince of the ranchÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦he moved with a majesty only achieved by royalty and master craftsmenÃ¢â¬ and he has a lot of authority and respect among all the ranch men in fact, Ã¢â¬Å"His authority was so great his word was taken on any subject, be it politics or loveÃ¢â¬ . In the film his authority and respect doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come across as much as it does in the book. The actor playing Slim didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look the way the reader would have imagined him, Ã¢â¬Å"His long, black, damp hair straight back. His hatchet face was ageless. His hands, large and lean, were as delicate in their action as those of a temple dancerÃ¢â¬ . CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is physically the same as how she is described in the book. However, the audience has more sympathy for her in the film than in the book because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t threaten Crooks in the same vindictive, spiteful way. Her vulnerability is also highlighted when she is seen breaking down in tears after Curley has broken her records. In addition Crooks, the stable buck, (his nickname is derived from his crooked spine) is much more bent over then the audience would have expected. He is crueller than in the book e.g. he enjoys tormenting Lennie about George possibly not returning ever again therefore is seen to be quite malicious. The camera work is very cleverly done and emphasises certain aspects of the story very well e.g. the close up of Lennie crushing CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s hand and the close up of Lennie breaking CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s neck, make the scenes more dramatic. The lighting affects the mood of the story like the semi-darkness in the barn when Lennie kills the puppy and the bunkhouse when Carlson takes CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s old dog to be shot display a sombre mood. The golden glow of the men playing horseshoes outdoors displays a happy and optimistic mood. There are also several interesting special effects used in the film to intensify the drama. For example the fight between Curley and Lennie is exciting to watch as you see the blood dripping from CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s crushed hand, the killing of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife as she panics and he breaks her neck and the shooting of Lennie when George shoots him in the back of the head. Most scenes in the film symbolise things for different characters for instance the dark side of the menÃ¢â¬â¢s lives when they are on the train and the light flickers symbolises an uncertain future ahead, violence could flare at any time. It could also symbolise a gloomy, depressing future. Scenes with a lot of light symbolise happier times, signs of hope or the men just enjoying life for a change. The Ã¢â¬ËrabbitsÃ¢â¬â¢ symbolise the dream and a symbol for Lennie of a better life. The Ã¢â¬Ëdead mouseÃ¢â¬â¢ symbolises death and a sense of foreboding (that something bad is about to happen). Music is a key element in any movie because it helps to build up tension e.g. the famous theme tune of Ã¢â¬ËJawsÃ¢â¬â¢ or the music used in Ã¢â¬ËPhyscoÃ¢â¬â¢ as the person is being murdered the beat is set by every stab. Music also shows the mood and is there to accompany the action on screen e.g. when the men are chasing George and Lennie at the beginning of the film the music gets louder and louder. In contrast to this is the use of complete silence to set the mood e.g. when they are on the train and when they are hiding in the ditch. The silence can represent calm or tension. The music when they are discussing the Ã¢â¬ËDreamÃ¢â¬â¢ is very relaxing and soothing, which again reflects the mood. Overall the novel is a tragedy because you feel sympathy for George because he had to kill his friend who had become like a brother to him. The film relays the novel, keeping along the lines of the story but is still a film worth watching even if the audience has not read the book. This is because the director has altered and added scenes to include tension, drama and climax. People who have read the book would be satisfied that the characters and storyline follow the book almost to every aspect.
Maggie and Wangero (Dee) are sisters. Maggie still lives with their mother in the family home. Wangero has moved on and lives in the city. Wangero has changed her name from Dee to get more in touch with her heritage. After years of shunning her African American background, Wangero now wants to embrace it. Wangero is used to getting her way. Her mother has never not given her everything sheÃ¢â¬Ës asked for. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s educated, clothed, and has grown into an attractive young woman. Maggie on the other hand is still living on the farm.She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive the same opportunities as her sister. A fire has left her scared, more than just physically. She is more introverted then Wangero. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s not used to getting her way but still plodding through life with the expectations of a future. She knows her life will be servitude to her future husband John Thomas. Life has just passed her by when it comes to the values that her sister Wangero holds dear. The only things the two ha ve in common are two quilts handed down from generation to generation.The quilts are made from bits of clothing from their ancestors past. Hand sewn these quilts are the fabric of their families history. Each piece of cloth that is sewn in the quilt has a story of its own. Each has its place in the familyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ long history. This is the common bond between the two. Wangero wants these to try and recoup her lost history. She has lost her roots. Roots she not so long ago scoffed and pushed aside for a new life, a new culture. Two quilts that she wants to use as a symbol of her heritage.She wants people to see her heritage. Bits of old cloth sewn together demonstrating her oppressed past. Allowing people to see, she has over come her past. That she is no longer oppressed. In contrast Maggie has lived her familyÃ¢â¬â¢s values. She is part of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s history its heritage. One day she will add a piece of cloth to the quilts and pass them down to her children. Unli ke Wangero she has worked and toiled through life. She lives her heritage on a daily basis. Wangero and MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s mother promised the quilts to Maggie.The quilts are most probably the only thing that Maggie values. Maggie is upset with the fact that Wangero just takes them. Wangero clutches the quilts to her chest with a sense of ownership. Maggie in the tradition of her heritage is willing to let Wangero keep them. She is upset with her siblingsÃ¢â¬â¢ selfishness. She knows that the quilts are rightfully hers. She is willing to part with them to allow Wangero to regain her concept of the family heritage. Maggie knows that no matter what Wangero tries she will never truly regain what she has thrown away.The mother tells Wangero that the quilts are Maggies and she may choose other ones but not those quilts. Wangero realizes that her mother prizes MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of family. She knows that Maggie will add to them and to the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s history. The quilts for Wangero are a symbol of her heritage. Maggie is part of her heritage. She is a piece of fabric in the quilt. Wangero may never be part of the quilt. She shunned her heritage years ago. Works Cited Kennedy, X. J. , Dana Gioia, and Alice Walker. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday Use. Ã¢â¬ An Introduction to Fiction. Boston: Longman, 2010. 455-61. Print.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The distinguished in the nineteenth century and itÃ¢â¬ s collapse in the twentieth century have led to similar, though much slower and less obvious, process in the course of modern science. TodayÃ¢â¬ s frantic development in the field of technology has a quality reminiscent of the days preceding the economic crash of 1929. The clearest evidence of it may be seen in such comparatively young sciences such as psychology and political economy. In psychology, one may observe the attempt to study human behavior without reference to the fact that man is conscious. In political economy, one may observe the attempt to study and device social systems without reference to man. Political economy came into prominence in the 19th century, in the era of philosophies post kantian disintegration, and no one rose to check its premises or to challenge its base. Political economist-including the advocates of capitalism-defined their sciences as the study of management or direction or organization or manipulation of Ã¢â¬Å"communityÃ¢â¬ sÃ¢â¬ or nations resources. The author goes on to say that the European culture regarded material productions as work that should be done by slaves or serfs but not first class citizens. It must be remembered that the institution of private property, in the full, legal meaning of the term, was brought into existence only by capitalism. In the pre-capitalist eras, private property existed de facto but not de jure, i. e. by custom and sufferance, not by right or by law. In law and in principle all land belonged to the head of the tribe, the king, and was held only by permission, which could be revoked at any time. CAPITALISM, a term used to donate the economic systems that has been dominate in the western world since the breakup of feudalism. Fundamental to any system called capitalist are the relations between private owners of non-personal means of production (land mines, industrial plants, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦. collectively known as capital) and free but capitalizes workers, who sell their labor services to employers. The resulting wage bargains determines the proportion in which the total products of society will be shared between the class of laborers and the class of capitalist entrepreneurs. Productive use of the Ã¢â¬Å"social surplusÃ¢â¬ was special virtue that enabled capitalism to outstrip all prior economic systems. Instead of building pyramids and cathedrals, those in command of the social surplus chose to invest in ships, warehouses, raw materials, finished goods and other material forms of wealth. There is of course, no such thing as a Ã¢â¬Å"social surplus. Ã¢â¬ All wealth is produced by somebody and belongs to somebody. Mans essential characteristic is his rational faculty. manÃ¢â¬ s mind is his basic means of survival-his only means of gaining knowledge. If some men do not choose to think, they can survive only by imitating and repeating a routine of work discovered by others-but those others had to discover it, or none would have survived. If men do not choose to think or to work, they can survive (temporarily) only by looting the goods produced by others-but those others had to produce them or none would have survived. Man cannot survive as animals do, by the mere guidance of perceptions. He cannot provide for his simplest physical need without process of thought. e needs a process of thought to discover how to plant and grow food or how to make weapons for hunting. His precepts might lead him to a cave. No precepts or instincts will tell him how to light a fire. Is man a sovereign individual who owns his person, his mind, his life, his work and itÃ¢â¬ s products-or is he the property of the tribe (the state, the society, the collective) that may dispose of him any way it pleases, that may dictate his convictions, prescribe the course of his life, control his work and expropriate his products? Does man have the right? To exist for his own sake-or is he born of bondage, as an indentures servant who must keep buying his life by serving the tribe but can never acquire it free and clear. In a capitalist society, all human relationships are voluntary. Men are free to cooperate or not, to deal with one another or not, as their own individual judgments, convictions, and interests dictate. They can deal with one another only in terms of and by means of reason, i. e. by means of discussion, persuasion, and contractual agreement, by voluntary choice, by voluntary choice of mutual benefit. The right to agree with others is not a problem in any society; it is the right to disagree that crucial. It is the institution of private property the protects and implements the rights to disagree-and thus keeps the roaf open to manÃ¢â¬ s most valuable attribute (valuable personally, socially, and objectively): the creative mind. The recognition of individual rights entails the banishment of physical force from human relationships: basically, rights can be violated by only means of force. In a capitalist society, no man or group may initiate the use of physical force against others. The only function of the government is such a society is, the task of protecting manÃ¢â¬ s rights, i. e. the task of protecting him from physical force. The author goes on to say that the only time the government can use force is when there is retaliation. Such there is no such entity as Ã¢â¬Å"societyÃ¢â¬ since society is only a number of individual men, this meant, in practice, that the rulers did not abide by the moral laws only subject to traditional rituals, they held total power and exacted blind obedience. They believed good which is good for the society. The most profoundly revolutionary achievement of the United States of America was subordination of society to moral law. The principle of manÃ¢â¬ s individual rights represented the extension of morality into the social system-as a limitation tot he power of the state, as manÃ¢â¬ s protection against the brute force of the collective. He goes onto say the United States was the first moral state. I donÃ¢â¬ t know what kind of morals the author is actually referring to. A right is a moral principle defining and sanctioning a mans freedom of action in a social context. There is only one fundamental Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ : mans right to his own life. The right to life is the source of all rights-and the right to property is their only implementation. He goes on to say all previous systems had regarded man as a sacrificial means to the end of others, and society as a means to a peaceful, orderly, voluntary, coexistence of individuals. All previous systems had regard manÃ¢â¬ s life as society property that they could dispose of him anytime they felt like it Without property rights, no other rights are possible. Since man has to sustain life by his own effort, the man who has no right to property is a right to action, like all the others: it is not the right to an object, but to the action and consequences of producing or earning that object. It is not a guarantee that am man will earn any property, but only a guarantee that he will own it if he earn it. It is the right to gain, to keep , to use and to dispose of material values. To violate manÃ¢â¬ s right means to compel him against his own judgment, or to expropriate his values. there is only on why to do it: by the use of physical force.
Friday, September 27, 2019
How Buddhism Integrated to the Chinese Society - Essay Example Buddhism succeeded to integrate to the Chinese society through its branched meditative practices, ethical practices, and theories of psychological, philosophical, and cosmological trends. In addition, Buddhism appealed to the Chinese people through its prospect of the release of frustration, the full development of human potential, with a personal relationship with an intangible and ultimate spiritual reality ("Buddhist Principles, Customs and Manners"). Hence, analytically speaking, the Chinese people accepted Buddhism with its teachings, which come from Siddhartha Gautama (the "awake"), and considered the historical Buddha. The life of the Buddha is rich in legends describing miracles and divine apparitions. But only 300 years after his death it began to be known by text, along with his teachings, with the Emperor Ashoka that the promotion throughout its area and sends missions abroad (Background to Buddhism: A history of Buddhism"). One of the paths through which Buddhism reaches the Chinese people is related to the essence of the Buddha, who is not regarded as a god or even as a divine messenger. It is the symbol of a principle, a thing which cannot be achieved but we must try to sketch by definitions ("Buddhist Principles, Customs and Manners"). ... However, modern Buddhism does not believe in reincarnation in a strict sense, but uses this concept in the form of parable ("Buddhism: What Buddhism is"). This parable says that a person is sentenced to die and return to Earth on the number of times it will take until it has reached the spiritual level necessary to escape from earthly life. Each time he dies he will be reincarnated in a different shape. These suites of reincarnations symbolize what Chinese people are experiencing in their lives ("Buddhist Principles, Customs and Manners"). Thus, according to the Buddhist theory of incarnation, if we drive someone brutal to satisfy our needs, we are reborn into an animal. In a spiritual work, we can kill these horrible things that we are born again and become once more, in a better form (Ã¢â¬Å"Background to Buddhism: A history of Buddhism"). Hence, these spiritual beliefs that are related to the theory of incarnation helped Buddhism to be integrated to the Chinese society. Moreover, for the Chinese people, what seemed appealing in Buddhism is the concept of "Dharma". It is the idea that the universe has meaning and humans have a role to play. There is only one dharma, by definition the same for everyone. Each religion is a light on the nature of Dharma, it teaches men how they should behave. A religion like Buddhism, for the Chinese, bases its teaching on the absolute. This religion teaches that the soul of the dead will live forever ("Buddhism: What Buddhism is"). It gives a specific instruction. It therefore resembles in many points of view other Chinese principles and religions derived from the Bible. What is unique about Buddhism, from the Chinese point of view is that it teaches that nothing is absolute
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Data Analysis - Essay Example ysing the factors which influenced mind during voting, particularly how their educational qualifications, religious leanings, gender income, etc., influenced their voting behaviour. Various political and social developments impacted the voting behaviour of the people in the British elections. As stated by Alvarez and Nagler (1997), in the United Kingdom, Ã¢â¬Å"the sustained revival of the Liberal Party since 1970, the rise of nationalist parties in Wales and Scotland, and the new Social Democratic Party, poised significant challenges to the established two-party system.Ã¢â¬ Apart from these aspects, studies were conducted to find out certain personal and social factors also impacted the voting behaviour. One of the key aspects which is thought to influence the voting pattern of the voters is their education and thereby intelligence levels. Deary, Batty and Gale (2008) in the 1970 British Cohort Study, examined the relation between childhood intelligence and how those people voted at the ages of 30 and above during the 2001 UK general election. The studies found that, Ã¢â¬Å"People with higher childhood intelligence were more likely to vote in the 2001 election (38% increased prevalence per SD increase in intelligence), People with higher childhood intelligence were more likely to take part in rallies and demonstrations, and to sign petitions, and expressed a greater interest in politics (40%, 65%, 33%, and 58% increased prevalence per SD increase in intelligence, respectively).Ã¢â¬ (Deary, Batty and Gale 2008). The other aspect, which could also inf luence the voters during the voting process, is their religious leanings. Kotler-Berkowitz (2001) points out how data from the 1991 and 1992 waves of the British Household Panel Study, when statistically analyzed (using multinomial logistic regression analysis) state that religions influence the voting decisions of sizable number of British citizens. Ã¢â¬Å"Religious belonging, behaviour and belief, as well as the religious context
Imagining a continuation of The Road by Cormac McCarthy - Essay Example He had not known what to expect. Around and around he went like a miserable and a dismal son who feels he is not belonging to this world. Ã¢â¬Å"They may kill you. They may hurt you. You have none to depend on. The North is not a good place to go to. You will be in a real jeopardy if you go there. Life is impossible in the North. You shall suffer. None is going to help you,Ã¢â¬ a sweet soft voice addressed the boy from inside. But he was determined to continue walking along the same road. Each time he walked he could remember all the sweet lovely conversations he had had with his father. He was cherishing many hopes waiting for life to smile again at his face and for the sky to irrigate his heart with much love. He had never experienced any sort of love except the one he truthfully felt for his father. He was silent for a time. He listened to the cool breeze running in his broken heart forshadowing something good to happen. Something that can alter his life and bring the smile to his face again and again. To all the faces. Those who know him have all died and they could not commemorate that expected joy for which he was thirsty and hankering. Ã¢â¬Å"I shall require you to accept certain assurances, sonny! You have no interest in any friends. Stick to the guidelines the father has set for you. No harm is going to touch you. No harm. No harm.Ã¢â¬ After having a long sleep under the shadow of an orange tree, the boy woke up all suddenly. He noted that the sun had cast some of its beams on his body. He had dreamt that he was brought to a new world where all people are getting along with each other. A world where flowers are growing in utter peace and bees buzzing hither and thither, dancing in marvelous circles like a Persian dervish. He was most happy because the birds are still chirping above not caring about huntersÃ¢â¬â¢ disdain and winterÃ¢â¬â¢s cold rain. He walked and walked. Then his eyes fell on a large house
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Individual - Assignment Example After a thorough discussion the group members converged in common inference that communication among employees is vital in an organization in order to maintain a proper work flow. In an organization each employee is a part of a bigger employee network. The work allocation must be communicated among the employees in order to have a clear idea of the work progress in the desired direction. Communication among employees has evolved over the years, from verbal and written communication to email and instant messaging. Even though the mode of communication has changed to ease off our efforts at workplace, it also has put a significant effect at our personal life. This essay reflects on the concept of checking work emails all the time and how email communication has changed the way we communicate at our workplace. I will also discuss about the group membersÃ¢â¬â¢ individual contribution in the discussion and how I have inferred my opinion from the group activity. In order to collect relevant theories regarding organizational communication and the use of email communication in work place, the group members collected several articles from relevant journals. From the collected data, we tried to highlight the important factors and outcomes related to a proper organizational communication. One of my colleagues pointed out that Spaho (2011) has emphasized on the importance of organizational communication, and how it is an important factor for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s success. He mentioned that miscommunication or poor communication can lead to poor relationship between the managers and the employees, which in turn can result in internal conflicts. I further added my opinion that a proper communication from the managers gives the right direction to the employees, which results in increase in their efficiency. Likewise, regular communication from the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ end also
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
The strategic analysis of Oil and Gas Company named as British Petroleum (BP) - Essay Example This report provides insights about the present and future marketing strategies that are designed by the company as a result of pressure from several environmental forces. In this regard, the paper is primarily divided into different sections. In each section, strategic performance of BP has been measured through general analytical techniques which include PESTEL, SWOT, BCG Matrix and Ansoff Grid. At the end, recommendation, suggestion and future strategic option for BP are mentioned with respect to the analysis discussed above. Strategic Analysis of British Petroleum Introduction British Petroleum is considered as one of the largest international oil and gas companies. It serves its customers by providing them energy for light and heat, fuel for transportation purpose, petrochemical products and retail services for day to day use. In business realm, BP is widely known for its active participation through the approach of vertical integration in all the areas of fuel industry except extraction and excavation of oil and refining distribution power. Lately, BP has participated in increasing options for renewable energy resources. The reasons is the wide spread phenomenon which says that at the end of this century, all the fuel reserves and deposits will be wiped out (Britsh Petroleum, n.d.). Operations of BP are spread in 80 different countries. Around 4 million barrels of crude oil are produced each year which make BP the market leader of its industry. Possessing the largest market share, BP is the first company which released the information that within the next twenty years, the future demands of energy is most likely to be increased by 50%. BP has also stated that 80% of this demand is expected to be met by fossil fuels (Britsh Petroleum, n.d.). The business model of BP is to create value across the entire value chain. The value chain starts from the process of exploration and ends at supplying fuel and energy related products to customers for everyday use. The objective of the company is to create value for supplies of energy and to shareholders in a responsible and safe way. They aim of the company is to be a safety leader, responsible corporate entity, world class operator and an excellent employer (BP Annual Report , 2011). The company operates two major busines s segments which include Refining and Marketing, and Production and Exploration. Through these business segments, company strives to focus on developing and producing required sources of energy and transforming these sources into products that can be useful to fulfill the needs of people. Projects of BP help in generating employment, tax revenues and investment in countries all over the world. The company is committed for demonstrating responsible behavior, building lasting relationship and meeting obligations. The head quarter of the company is located in London, U.K whereas the operations of BP are spread across US, Europe, Russia, Canada, Australasia, Asia, some parts of Africa and South America . Core Brands of BP The most renowned brands of BP include: Source: (BP Annual Report , 2011) Values of BP Values of BP are segmented into three broad categories: What BP does? Delivers energy and fuel to the world What BP stands for? BP states that the company is deeply concerned about h ow the energy and fuel are delivered to the world. What BP values? Safety Excellence Respect Teamwork Courage Mission Statement of BP The mission statement of BP states that: Ã¢â¬Å"Our function is to provide safe, efficient and environmentally responsible marine and shipping solutions for the BP groupÃ¢â¬ The mission statement of BP signifies that the core functions of the organization are to provide efficient, safe
Monday, September 23, 2019
Memory and Attention and Intelligence - Research Paper Example A breakdown of the assembly process of memory and lack of attention power are found as people get older. When people begin to age, their memory power becomes weaker and this condition can be directly attributed to the faltering of synapses. In addition, some parts of the brain like hippocampus which are very crucial to effective memory are highly vulnerable to aging. Moreover, as people get older, their brain shrinks itself and becomes less efficient. Similarly, cultural differences can influence the power of memory and attention to a great extent. For instance, individuals from western cultures concentrate more on object based and self relevant events whereas individuals from eastern cultures focuses more on contextual details and similarities. Culture and attention also maintains a similar connection. To be specific, culture influences attention which in turn impacts other cognitive and social processes. Studies have proven that gender differences may also influence human memory an d power of attention. Scholars opine that males have a better short term memory than females while females have a better long term memory than males. Researchers opine that males stand one step ahead of females in the case of power of attention.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Revenue Generation in Local Government Councils in Nigeria Essay Local governments are potentially very important for Nigeria as they play a significant role in generating revenue and encouraging civil involvement, as well as creating a visible link between taxes and service delivery. The increasing cost of running government coupled with dwindling revenue has left various local governments in Nigeria with formulating strategies to improve the revenue base. Despite the numerous sources of revenue available to the various tiers of government as specified in the Nigeria 1999 constitution, since the 1970s till now, over 80% of the annual revenue of the three tiers of government comes from petroleum. However, the serious decline in the price of oil in recent years has led to a decrease in the funds available for distribution to the states and local governments. The need for state and local governments to generate adequate revenue from internal sources has therefore become a matter of extreme urgency and importance. The need underscores the eagerness on the part of state and local governments and even the federal government to look for new sources of revenue or to become aggressive and innovative in the mode of collecting revenue from existing sources. The general concern over the seemingly slow development of the rural areas in Nigeria has created a doubt as to the relevance of local governments in Nigeria whose primary function was to effect a representative government faster to all areas of the state land. Inadequacy of funds for various developmental projects stands as the cause for these shortcomings despite the increasing revenue allocation from the Federation accounts to the local governments. Hence the reason for the various avenues granted the local governments to generate revenues themselves. This essay is being carried out to appraise and evaluate revenue generation in the local governments, particularly the internally generated revenue (IGR) to point out its adequacies, inadequacies and give recommendations where necessary. It study seeks to:- * Identify the various sources of internal revenue available to local government council; * To examine the prospect of improving the internally generated revenue of local government council; * Spotting of factors militating against effective revenue collection in the local government; and * Proffer solution to identified problems. Good governance is good money. Revenue generation can play a significant role in improving local government efficiency and reducing local government dependency. This essay would provide positive suggestion on how to improve the financial position of the local government councils. Secondly, it will provide useful suggestions on how to effectively manage problems of revenue generation. Thirdly, it will provide useful suggestions on the budgetary control system the council can embark upon. Lastly, this work will help researchers, individuals, organizations, higher levels of government and also local government councils on how to enable them meet their obligations. The theory of public finance is a field of economics that is concerned with paying for collective or governmental activities, and with the administration and design of those activities. The proper role of government provides a starting point for the analysis of public finance. In this view, public sector programs should be designed to maximise social benefits minus costs, then revenues needed to pay for those expenditures should be raised through a taxation system that creates the fewest efficiency losses caused by distortion of economic activity as possible. In the light of the above, the focus of this essay is on revenue generation in local government councils with particular reference to Ikenne local government, Ikenne. This work will embrace an examination of the internal and statutory source to the total revenue. This work was intended to cover all the twenty (20) local government in Ogun State, but because of limited time frame and the unavailability of some records due to negl igence on the side of the staff, the focus will be on Ikenne Local Government only. This work will begin with the intention of developing an initial understanding of the opportunities and potential for revenue generation. To do this, the revenue generation constraints faced by local governments, perceptions of local governments, the importance of revenue, various revenue generation and service delivery will be appraised. This study will attract data from both primary and secondary sources. The data from primary sources will include those obtained from personal interviews. Secondary data would be obtained from budget speeches of council chairman, existing records in the council, journals, and CBN annual financial publications.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The Principles Of Nursing And Health Care This assignment into principles of nursing and health will explore dimensions of health; it will give an insight to a person who has a condition called multiple sclerosis. Looked at will be what determinants of health are to this person. Underpinning professional, legal and ethical implications surrounding health should the individual require nursing care is of great importance. Finally the assignment will give a reflection of what information has been gained and health concepts on a personal level. 1 Dimensions of health Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. World Health Organisation (WHO 1946) cited in Naidoo (2009). Health means so many different things to different people, someone viewed as having a disease or disability can also feel like they are healthy, as can a person who is physical fit feel unhealthy. Dimensions of health determine health to each individual. There are six different dimensions of health which are; intellectual, physical, emotional, spiritual, social and environmental. Health is looked at as a whole and when being cared for, a holistic approach could be used taking into account all of the dimensions of health. Dimension in more detail are; intellectual this is when a person has the ability or inability to make decisions and judgements reasonably, understanding decisions and consequences of decisions. Physical health is what you can see the size, shape and body function. Emotional is when a pers on is empathetic towards other peoples feelings and has an understanding of their own, and can deal with all different types of emotions as and when they occur. Spiritual health can be having a belief in a god or religion however it has more of an impact on a persons ethics, peace of mind and principles. Social dimension is having relationships with all different types of people for example work colleagues, family and childhood friends. Environmental can be where a person lives and works it could be a poor area or poor working conditions. Across all the dimensions if one is affected this could have a knock on effect to other dimensions or all of them, they usually all go hand in hand, Brooker (2007). 2 Person overview To put principles of health into a reality and have an understanding an example could be an individuals health. Chosen as an example is David Anderson; David is fifty five year old male who was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in his early thirtys. Multiple sclerosis is a condition which causes a defect in the central nervous system. The myelin sheath which surrounds the nerve fibres comes under attack from the autoimmune system, Corcos (2008). The disease is unpredictable and can affect different people in different ways. Usual symptoms are numbness in limbs, involuntary movements, lethargy, blurry or double vision the list goes on. Multiple sclerosis was identified by the French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot in 1863 who worked in a hospital called Salptrire in Paris. He identified the condition as aclrose en Plaques, Burgess (2010) which mean hardening, this relates to the scaring which causes the damage to the nervous system. David has worked in the same job for over 30 years, it is an outdoor manual position where he walks for long periods of time in a country setting as well as working in a country setting he also lives four miles from his place of work and has no commuting stress. David has been married for 35 years he has three grown up children and three grandchildren. David enjoys spending time playing golf in the summer months and watching sports live and on the TV he also enjoys photography. Davids health has always been very good despite his condition; he has never been on medication other than over the counter analgesics and has never required any kind of treatment. At times the effects of his condition do show but in a very minor way which he has always coped on the surface extremely well. 3 Determinants Determinants are factors which may affect a persons health; this may be in a good way or a bad way, generally and in the health of the above person. Determinants are factors which influence how healthy a person is. These are socio-economic which are cultural and environmental for example where in the country the person lives, living and working conditions for example are the conditions good is there stress involved, social and community networks is there support in place in the community and socially, individual lifestyle factors for example if the person takes regular exercise and eats a balance diet, and age, sex and hereditary factors. Naidoo and Wills as cited in Brooker (2007). Determinants which affect David are difficult to identify, possibly determinants affect him in a positive way. David has a very good life style, and has had a steady job for a long time environmental factors have possibly enhanced the quality of life for David. He spends a lot of time outdoors and feels t his has a positive effect as for long periods of time he lives symptom free from his condition. Social and community factors again are strong in his family who surround him and the networks of doctors in the local GP office are also strong. Around the world the United Kingdom has one of the highest rates of multiple sclerosis in the world, Rog et al (2009) cited in Burgess (2010). It has been said by Ebers et al (2007) cited in Burgess (2010). One in one thousand people in the UK have MS. It has been shown in studies that the further away from the equator the higher the volume of people recorded to have MS. This could be due to the periods of time these areas have sunshine, a vitamin related to sunshine is vitamin D, the body requires sunlight to synthesize vitamin D this vitamin is found in most immune cells and is associated functions including inhibition of the production of cytokines this is known to have a negative effect in MS, Ponsonby et al (2005) cited in Burgess (2010). Sh etland and Orkney in the north of Scotland have the highest rate of cases in the world. Interestingly studies have also shown people who emigrate from country to country before the age of 15 will develop the risk from the country which they have settled in, if the move takes place after the persons 15th birthday it is said the person will retain the risk factor from the country they are originally from. Underpinning professional, legal and ethical principles. Nursing care may be required for David in time and there are a lot of factors to consider when any person is being nursed. Looked at are the underpinning professional, legal and ethical principles involved in nursing a patient. As a professional a nurse has to follow rules which are set by the NMC. The NMC is the Nursing and Midwifery Council they are the governing body for all nurses and midwifes, the NMC have produced a code and within the code there are rules, standards, guidance and advice. NMC The Code (2008). The NMC are a council who if find or have any incidents reported to them will make decisions about fitness to practice, and can discipline or strike a nurse off of the registration if the nurse has failed to follow the code or committed an offence. The main concern of the NMC is to safeguard patients and members of the public and how they are treated by nurses and midwifes. It is said in NMC, The Code (2008) Individuals must be respected and dignity must be maintained. Individuals should not be discriminated against and must also be treated with consideration and kindness. Where required a nurse must seek out help and support from relevant agencies and support networks in the health and social care setting. Respect is an essential part of protecting an individuals confidentiality, information should never be shared other than with relevant people or professionals involved with the care of the person. It is also important that information should be shared if the person is at risk or h arm. An additional part of respecting a person may be concerning their likes and dislikes, communicating is essential when caring for a person or there family to ensure the best possible care is given, this could be ensuring communication can happen without any obstruction for example language or communication requirements possibly providing some kind of aid. Consent is a large part of care giving every time a treatment is given this could be from bathing to giving medication consent must be obtained, if an individual declines consent for treatment this must be respected, as it is a persons right to be involved in any decisions regarding treatment however there is an instance when decision making could be taken away from a person this happens when the mental capacity is compromised. there is a part of legislation which ensures a person who is incapable of making decisions regarding care is safe guarded. As a professional nurse boundaries must be maintained between patients and nurse s it is unacceptable to accept gifts, loans or personal relationships from patients and their families. It is part of the role of a professional to identify risks and people who are taking risks, it is also a duty to report any practices that are putting others at risk. Record keeping is an essential skill which nurses must practice in an accurate way as the records include all of the patients care which has been given or is due to be given, keeping accurate records is imperative as poor records could harm a patients safety and confidentiality. In the case for David he may become ill in time and require nursing care and it may become costly to the government, it is his right to receive care as and when required and be treated with respect and dignity, he may decide he does not want his suffering to be prolonged if his life is nearing an end and any decisions he may take must be upheld. Be open and honest, act with integrity and uphold the reputation of your profession NMC The Code (2008). Following the above statement ensures you comply with the code and also by following the law, being honest and able to identify problems and deal with them in the correct way if anything were to happen in practice. This will ensure care given can be without prejudice and the integrity of the nurse remains intact. NMC (2008) Legal issues which could arise could be in two ways these are civil and criminal. A civil court of law is where an individual person can file a case against another person or organisation when a person has come to harm possibly by neglect. Criminal law is where a person has committed a crime and it is in the publics interest for the person who committed the crime to be prosecuted by a court of law and punished. Personal Concept As I have studied and read more about principles of health it has had a major impact on the importance of knowing what the dimensions of health are, and understanding why a person has maybe become ill or in hospital, and what can be done to help or educate an individual to have a better life style which will lead to improved health. Looking at an individual has also given me an understanding that determinants of health can be positive as well as negative, as having a good life style for someone who has a condition like MS can enhance quality of life. Also if someone has a very poor life style this can lead to conditions like type 2 diabetes, this is generally caused by a very poor diet and by being overweight. Being a nursing is an extremely important role and has very strict guidelines which must be followed. This will ensure accurate information and care is given at all times. By following the NMC code it will ensure that I am respectful of individuals and value people from all walks of life, always leading by example, being accountable for my actions and will always treat people fairly. Conclusion This assignment has looked at dimensions of health, and how different dimensions can have an effect on all of the dimensions, there are six different dimensions which range from emotional to physical, each one is of equal importance and if any one is impaired it can often influence health. An overview of a person who has MS has been given and what determinants affect this persons life, is it good or bad? Professional, legal and ethical principles have been looked at, also and the importances of how these come into play when a person is being nursed. Identifying how the assignment has enhanced a personal view of the nursing profession has also been discussed. It has been identified the importance of being accurate regarding care giving and in record keeping to ensure the best care is given at all times. Brooker C, Waugh A and Watson R. Foundations of Nursing practice fundamentals of holistic care, 2007 Edinburgh Mosby Elsevier. Burgess M, Shedding greater light on the natural history and prevalence of multiple sclerosis British Journal of Neuroscience nursing January 2010 Volume 6 number 1 Corcos J and Shinck E Neurogenic Bladder second edition 2008 Informa Healthcare. Naidoo J and Wills J. Foundations for Health Promotion Third edition 2009 Edinburgh. Nursing and Midwifery Council The Code 2008 World health organization. (WHO) 1948 Preamble to the constitution, Geneva. [online] http://www.who.int/suggestions/faq/en/ [13/11/2010]
Friday, September 20, 2019
How can a traumatic experience influence childrens behaviour How can a traumatic experience influence childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour? The issues surrounding childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour after a traumatic experience are complex, multifactorial and often hugely controversial. Having considered the literature on the subject, one could be forgiven for believing that there are as many opinions on the issues as there are people considering the issues. In this review we have attempted to cover as many of the major areas as possible in order to present a reasonably comprehensive overview of the subject. The definition of a traumatic experience is subjective from both the point of view of the child concerned and also form the observer. Some commentators have suggested that the only workable definition of a traumatic experience is one that, by definition, produces demonstrable psychological sequelae. (Abikoff 1987) This may be the case, but as other commentators observe, some psychological sequelae may not surface for years, if at all. This does not mean that the original triggering episode was not traumatic. There is also the view that that the worst kind, or most extreme type of trauma may be the most likely to be actively suppressed at either a conscious or subconscious level. (Haddad Garralda. 1992) Literature Review With an area of literature as vast as the one that we are considering here, it is often difficult to find a place to start. In this instance we will consider the paper by Prof. Harry Zetlin (1995) who starts with a short monograph on the screening of a television programme which dealt with arguably the most catastrophic of stresses to befall a child, that of the loss of a parent through murder or violence. He makes several thought provoking comments which are worthy of consideration as they are germinal to the thrust of this article. The first is a plea that the diagnostic label of post-traumatic stress should not be a catch-all basket for all emotional and behavioural problems that can occur after a traumatic experience. (Gorcey et al.1986) The second is the realisation that in the particular circumstances portrayed on the television where a parent is murdered have two consequences. The first is the obvious catastrophic trauma that the child experiences with the violent loss of a parent, but the second is the much less obvious fact that the child has, at a stroke, also lost a valuable, and normally available resource, of the protective family environment, which is often one of the most useful therapeutic tools available to the therapist. He adds to this two further insights. The first is that the surviving parent has their own trauma to deal with and that is invariably transmitted to the child and that, because such events are mercifully comparatively rare, only a comparatively few professionals are ever able to build up any significant expertise and experience on the subject. The main issue of the piece is, however, the very relevant point that considering the apparent obsession of the media with intrusive fly-on-the-wall documentaries and the almost equally insatiable public hunger for sensation, the very fact that such a programme is made at all, almost inevitably adds to the trauma felt by the victims. (Koss et al 1989) One could argue that actually confronting and talking about such issues is part of the healing process. Such considerations may be of value in the adult who is more able to rationalise the concepts involved, but to the child this may be very much more difficult and being forced to relive the episodes in a very public and unfamiliar arena, may do little more than add to the psychological stresses and damage already caused. (Mayall Gold 1995) This paper offers a wise and considered plea for sense and moderation, not to mention reservation and decency. It is written in calm and considered moderate tones which makes the impact of its message all the more powerful. The next few papers that we would like to analyse deal with the thorny issue of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. It has to be commented that there is a considerable body of literature which argues on both sides of the debate about whether ADHD is the result of childhood trauma. One side is presented, quite forcibly, by Bramble (et al. 1998). The authors cite Kewley (1998) as stating that the prime aetiology of ADHD is a genetic neuro-developmental one. They challenge the expressed views that it is a manifestation of early childhood abuse or trauma which can have occurred at some time previously with the words: ..early abuse and trauma later manifest as symptoms and that the detection of these symptoms in children clearly illustrates early trauma is a prime example of the logical fallacy that underpins all psychoanalytical theory and practice. The authors argue that to state because psychotherapy is often effective it must reflect the fact that a traumatic episode must have been responsible because it addresses directly the original emotional trauma (Follette et al.1996), is completely unsound. The natural progression of this argument, they assert, is the reason why many parents of children with ADHD have such difficulty in finding child psychiatrists who can actually help them rather than the many who would seek to blame them for the childs behaviour in the first place. (Breire 1992) The authors take the view that the reason that psychoanalytical practitioners have held so much influence on the profession over the years is that it is only recently that the glare of evidence based medicine has fallen on their discipline. The authors argue that far from using psychotherapeutic tools to try to achieve resolution, the evidence suggests that psycho-stimulant treatment is far more effective (Abikoff 1987) if only because it enhances the therapeutic effect of other forms of treatment such as family therapy and special educational provision. The converse argument, or perhaps an extension of the argument, is presented by Thambirajah (1998) who takes the view that many papers on ADHD (and by inference he is referring to the one reviewed above), regard the syndrome as being a diagnosis made simply by checking an appropriate number of boxes on a check-list. He asserts that factors such as biopsychological circumstances should be weighed equally strongly as the symptom cluster of impulsivity, inattention or hyperactivity. (Tannock 1998) In direct contrast to the preceding paper he states that early traumatic experiences, current abuse or even depression of the mother may all be contributory factors in the aetiology of the condition. He argues that taking no account of these factors is to ignore much of the accumulated evidence and wisdom on the subject. He also makes a very valid point that to ignore these factors and only to use the check-list approach means that here is an over-reliance on the significance of these symptoms and, as a direct result, this leads to an overestimation of prevalence. He points to the obviously erroneous estimate of a study that was based exclusively on check list symptomatology, of 15% (although the study is not quoted). The author makes the very valid point that most psychiatrists would agree that the hyperkinetic disorder is a small sub-group within the ADHD syndrome and that these children may need treatment with stimulants but only after other aetiologies have been excluded. He makes the rather apt comparison of treating all children with ADHD the same way as calling all four legged animals with a tail donkeys. There are a great many more papers on this issue which we could usefully review but we must explore other areas of trauma in a childs life in order to try to give a representative overview. With the possible exception of the situation outlined in the first paper reviewed, there can be few experiences more traumatising to a child than to me made homeless as a refugee in a time of war. The paper by Hodes (et al. 2001) is both heart rending and informative as it explores the health needs of refugees arriving in the UK. Although the paper catalogues all of the health needs (that need not concern us in this article) of the refugees, it does not overlook the psychosocial trauma aspects of the childrens plight. They point to the fact that one way that a childs psychological trauma can be minimised is by being accepted into a peer group such as a school. While this may indeed be true, the problem is that refugee children are seldom seen by their peers as belonging and are therefore seldom completely accepted. (Lewis 1998) This is either aggravated or caused by the fact that they already have twice the rate of psychiatric disorder as found in control groups of children. (Tousignant et al. 1999). It is therefore important to be aware of these problems as they are often very amenable to psychiatric intervention (OShea et al. 2000). The authors quote a paper by Burnett and Peel (2001) who appear to be particularly pessimistic about making a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder in children from a fundamentally different culture, as their recovery is thought to be secondary to the reconstruction of their support networks, which may prove particularly difficult in a different or even alien, cultural environment. They point to studies of the children who fled to the USA to escape the Pol Pot regime, who had post-traumatic stress in childhood, and even when followed up 12 years later they quote 35% as still having post traumatic stress and 14% had active depression. (Sack et al. 1999). This may be a reflection of the difficulty in getting appropriate treatment for a condition in a different culture. But, in distinct relevance to our considerations here, the authors comment that even exposure to a single stressor may result in a surprisingly persistent post traumatic stress reaction. (Richards Lovell 1999). The last article that we are going to consider here is a paper by Papineni (2003). This paper has been selected partly because of its direct relevance to our consideration, but also because on a human level, it is a riveting piece of writing. It is entitled Children of bad memories and opens with the quote Every time there is a war there is a rape (Stiglmayer 1994). The whole article is a collection of war-related rape stories and the resultant psychopathology that ensued. The author specifically explores the issues relating to childhood rape and its aftermath. She also considers a related issue and that is how the effect of maternal shame shapes a childs perception of themselves (with heartrending consequences), how the shame felt by the mother is often externalised to affect the child who is the visible symbol of the physical act. (Carpenter 2000) The catalogue of emotion and reaction described in this article by some of the subjects, would almost make an authoritative text book on the consequences of a traumatic experience in childhood. It would be almost impossible to quantify a single negative emotion that was neither articulated nor experienced by the victims, not only of the act of rape, but also of the stigma and aftermath of the act which was often described as the worst aspect of the whole thing. A constant theme that runs trough the paper is the realisation that the presence of a child conceived by a rape is a potent reminder of the trauma and therefore is, in itself a bar to psychological healing. The author also points to the fact that another, almost inevitable consequence of forcible rape, is difficulty with relationships and intimacy which can devastate a childs social development. (Human Rights Watch.1996). Such a child may not only have this burden to bear for its life, but the stigma forced upon it by society may also have untold consequences. The author quotes a child born from the Rwandan conflict, describing itself by different names which bear witness to societys perception, and more accurately and inevitably, the childs perception of itself: children of hate, enfants non-desirÃÆ'Ã ©s (unwanted children), or enfants mauvais souvenir (children of bad memories) The author describes how such psychological trauma may never be successfully treated and ends with the very perceptive comment. There cannot be peace without justice, and unless the international community recognises all rape in conflict situations as crimes against humanity, there will be no peace for the victims of such atrocities. Conclusion It is clearly a forlorn hope to cover all of the aspects of trauma and its potential impact on a childs life in one short article. We hope that, by being selective, we have been able to provide the reader with an authoritative insight into some on the problems associated with the subject.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Imagery and Symbolism in David GutersonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Country Ahead of Us, The Country Behind :: Guterson Country Ahead of Us Country Behind
Imagery and Symbolism in David GutersonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Country Ahead of Us, The Country Behind In David GutersonÃ¢â¬â¢s anthology, The Country Ahead of Us, The Country Behind, characters are portrayed effectively and succinctly through the imagery of their surroundings. Many of his stories are symbolic in that they reflect relationships and feelings of characters. GutersonÃ¢â¬â¢s titles have a more complex and deeper connection to the story than is first apparent. They too are often symbolic of a main character, or of relationships. In "Angels in the Snow," Guterson describes the world as fragile because of the snow that has fallen. This fragility of the world, at that particular time, is representative of the relationship between John and Cora. The next morning the world is described as Ã¢â¬Ëa fragile, white placeÃ¢â¬â¢ and this symbolises their relationship which has also become very fragile because of what John has revealed. The whiteness of the snow symbolises innocence and purity, but at this moment, through CoraÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes, John has lost the last of his innocence. Guterson also uses the act of making angels in the snow to portray innocence that is rapidly fading. We made angels in the snow, Cora and myself, swept our arms through the powder, left an impression of wings that would melt before the new year. It is as if John already knows what is to come, and is aware of how soon it will be. He is aware that his relationship with Cora has changed. She now has confirmation that John is not as innocent as he might have liked her to think. Through making the angels he is making one last attempt to seem innocent, for this is a very innocent act. John appears to think that if he can some how act innocently, he can convince Cora that he really is so. In "The Flower Garden," Guterson continues his exploration of the fragility of a relationship between a man and a woman and again portrays this by drawing parallels with what is happening in nature. The relationship between Anna and the narrator is a very fragile one like the garden they Ã¢â¬Ëplanted with nursery sets and fragile garden cuttings.Ã¢â¬â¢ The relationship and the garden are at the beginning of their being, and both are very fragile. Both have to be thought out, then nurtured carefully. Any mistake or misjudgment can have long and lasting consequences.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Executive Summary Air Asia, is the market leader of low cost carriers in Asia, indicate on the excellent record of bringing for innovative concept into the business. Air Asia is a low cost carrier that keeps position in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s records. Strategic management has played a rouge role in successfully of many business institutions in the world of many airlines including Air Asia. There are many parts in this report such as company background, SWOT analysis, target market, monitoring and evaluation, marketing mix, and budget. So as to make more profit for Air Asia, a marketing strategy has been planned to have a better growth throughout this marketing action plan in the near future. Lists of Table and Content Figures/ Tables Pages Figure 1: Competitive of Air AsiaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..5 Figure 2: The Strategy Clock of Air AsiaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦......10 Figure 3: Product Life Cycle of Air AsiaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...12 Table 1: Product and Services of Air AsiaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.6 Table 2: Competitors of Airasia.................................................................................................7 Table 3: Strength and Weaknesses of CompetitorsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦........8 Table 4: SWOT Analysis of Air AsiaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.........9 Table 5: Marketing Action Plan of Airasia...............................................................................14 Table 6: Budget of Ã¢â¬Å"You fly I flyÃ¢â¬ of Air AsiaÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..15 Table of Contents Page Executive SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦1 List of Figures and TablesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.........2 Table of ContentsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... ... low-income and medium-income group because of them do not have so much money to buy an expensive ticket to travel, so that Air Asia promote this plan to let more people can have a chance and go travel with this promotion plan. There are some alternative plans for the marketing action plan such as game plan. Air Asia provides constituency good serving to places they want or need to go to as well as at an equitable and forecast price. As well as the price is obviously a significant element driving the marketplace, it is definitely not the only one. It will not be our aim though we may occasionally lowest price on the market competitors. Nor will we look for to be the highest priced, either a reasonable fare basis, perspicuity, and equitable linked with good service and greater expediency than furnished elsewhere, be going to be our guiding principles (Svala, 2013).
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Dental Caries is a chronic disease of childhood that has reached epidemic proportions (Garcia-Cortes et al., 2014). The oral health of children is critical for their overall well-being with prompt diagnosis and early management being a key to the success of this approach. Despite significant progress in reducing oral diseases in developed countries over the past three decades, dental caries remains a significant public health problem, particularly amongst disadvantaged people and people living in remote areas (Estai et al., 2017c). Saudi Arabia is a large country with over 700 towns and villages. Despite the growth of dentistry in the Kingdom, there are still very few areas with specialized pediatric dental care. Specialists tend to be concentrated in the major towns and cities (AlShammery, 2016a). This increases the challenge of providing high quality pediatric dental care to every part of the Kingdom. This is a problem, as it is documented that a lack of dental care to the primary teeth will increase the risk of dental problems in the permanent teeth (Li and Wang, 2002). Pediatric dentistry is a complex field with the interaction of many different specialties. Children require not only restorative and endodontic care to the primary teeth but also require consultations from endodontists, prosthodontists and orthodontists on the condition of the tooth and future treatment planning. It is very difficult to locate such multi-disciplinary care even in smaller towns and almost impossible to obtain in remote villages of the Kingdom (AlShammery, 2016a). As a result of this maldistribution in the dental workforce, many rural and remote communities in are left underserved, leading to untreated oral disease (Estai et al., 2017b). Workforce shortages, sparsely populated regions, funding challenges and the decreasing cost of and advances in technology, have resulted in an increased interest in the adoption of telemedicine services (Bradley et al., 2010). The use of role substitution in dentistry is not a new concept. One of the potentially viable solutions to address geographical hurdles and the unavailability of dentists is mobile teledentistry (Estai et al., 2016b). Teledentistry allows local service providers to see advice from specialists without the patient having to leave the local practice (Marino et al., 2016).Teledentistry is a domain of telemedicine that emerges from the combination of information communication technology (ICT) and dentistry. For several decades, telemedicine has played a role in bridging gaps and overcoming barriers related to distance through expanding care access to unreachable populations (Estai et al., 2016a). Teledentistry is defined as the use of electronic information and telecommunications technologies to support long-distance clinical oral health care, patient and professional health related education, public health, and health administration (Marino and Ghanim, 2013). It is one of a number of growing solutions to address limited access to dental care is the utilization of telemedicine technologies in the screening for oral diseases, providing care, evaluation of care and referral (Estai et al., 2016c). There are two telemedicine modalities: real-time consultation and store-and-forward. For most dental applications, the store-and-forward method provides excellent results without excessive costs for equipment or connectivity (Daniel and Kumar, 2014). Mobile teledentistry is a subset of telemedicine that incorporates cellular phone technology and store-and-forward telemedicine into oral care services. Almost all smartphones have a built-in camera and mobile connectivity and are readily accessible at a low cost. (Estai et al., 2016d). Despite dental photography becoming an integral part of daily dental practice, it has rarely been used as means of diagnosis, consultation, or referral in routine practice. However, evidence on the use of smartphone cameras in epidemiological dental research is rare (Estai et al., 2017b).Given the need for specialist consultation in the remote parts of Saudi Arabia, there is a need for a study to examine the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in the Kingdom. Since the mixed dentition is the period of maximum dental change for a child, this study focused on the use of mobile phone teledentistry in the mixed dentition.1.2 Aim of the StudyThe aim of the study is to test the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in diagnosis of dental caries of children in the mixed dentition.1.3 Specific Objective of the StudyThe study had the following specific objective, which is to compare the diagnosis of oral caries in the mixed dentition obtained via teledentistry to the diagnosis of these conditions obtained by physical clinical examination.The use of mobile phones and the sharing of photographic data on platforms such as WhatsAppÃ¢â ¢ or InstagramÃ¢â ¢ is a relatively new phenomenon. However, the field of teledentistry itself is not new. This literature review tracks the development of telemedicine and teledentistry. It also looks into the validity and reliability of diagnosis made using photographs. Lastly, it seeks to demonstrate the demographic and human resource challenges that highlight the need for teledentistry in Saudi Arabia.2.1 Development of TeledentistryThe development of telemedicine began in the 1960s, when the United States department of defense decided to establish a data base of interconnected networks to provide healthcare to troops stationed in remote locations (Rocca et al., 1999). The US Army conducted the first study of teledentistry at Fort Gordon, Georgia in July 1994. In this study a dental image management system was used in conjunction with an Intra-oral camera to capture color images of a patient's mouth. These images were then transmitted over a 9600 baud modem from the dental clinic in Fort McPherson, Georgia to Fort Gordon, a distance of 120 miles (Rocca et al., 1999).The initial set up for teledentistry, relied on communication via modems and wire based telephonic communication (Eraso et al., 1996). In the 1990s, the internet gained rapid popularity with the public revealing of the World Wide Web, an entity that had hitherto been a secret US army project. This led to the exploration of newer modes of transmitting data. Reviewing the existing systems of the time, Eraso et al (1996) looked at the effect of digitalizing and transmitting tomographic radiographs. Tomograms of the temporomandibular joint were digitized in three different formats using a PC-based system. The image resolution for various projections was determined at different camera-film distances. Three series of images were transmitted by telephone, and transmission times were measured. They found that while no difference in image quality was found between the initial digitized and the transmitted images; transmitted and transmitted-and-printed images were of significantly lower quality than the original radiographs or the digitized images viewed on a computer monitor (Eraso et al., 1996). In the late 1990s, the national electrical manufacturers association had developed a standard guideline for the storage and transmission of images. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for storing and transmitting medical images enabling the integration of medical imaging devices such as scanners, servers, workstations, printers, network hardware, and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) from multiple manufacturers. It has been widely adopted by hospitals, and is making inroads into smaller applications like dentists' and doctors' offices (Bauer and Brown, 2001, Folke, 2001, Chen and Chen, 2002). Chen and Chen (2002) compared DICOM images to existing videoconferencing techniques for the transmission of dental information. They found that DICOM images greatly reduced the cost of transmitting information without significantly compromising quality. The early part of the new millennium was characterized by the rapid spread of e-mail and electronic communications. The launch and spread of several free email providers such as HotmailÃ¢â ¢, GmailÃ¢â ¢, YahooÃ¢â ¢ etc. meant that scanned images could be transmitted between persons without Dental Caries Dental Caries is a chronic disease of childhood that has reached epidemic proportions (Garcia-Cortes et al., 2014). The oral health of children is critical for their overall well-being with prompt diagnosis and early management being a key to the success of this approach. Despite significant progress in reducing oral diseases in developed countries over the past three decades, dental caries remains a significant public health problem, particularly amongst disadvantaged people and people living in remote areas (Estai et al., 2017c). Saudi Arabia is a large country with over 700 towns and villages. Despite the growth of dentistry in the Kingdom, there are still very few areas with specialized pediatric dental care. Specialists tend to be concentrated in the major towns and cities (AlShammery, 2016a). This increases the challenge of providing high quality pediatric dental care to every part of the Kingdom. This is a problem, as it is documented that a lack of dental care to the primary teeth will increase the risk of dental problems in the permanent teeth (Li and Wang, 2002). Pediatric dentistry is a complex field with the interaction of many different specialties. Children require not only restorative and endodontic care to the primary teeth but also require consultations from endodontists, prosthodontists and orthodontists on the condition of the tooth and future treatment planning. It is very difficult to locate such multi-disciplinary care even in smaller towns and almost impossible to obtain in remote villages of the Kingdom (AlShammery, 2016a). As a result of this maldistribution in the dental workforce, many rural and remote communities in are left underserved, leading to untreated oral disease (Estai et al., 2017b). Workforce shortages, sparsely populated regions, funding challenges and the decreasing cost of and advances in technology, have resulted in an increased interest in the adoption of telemedicine services (Bradley et al., 2010). The use of role substitution in dentistry is not a new concept. One of the potentially viable solutions to address geographical hurdles and the unavailability of dentists is mobile teledentistry (Estai et al., 2016b). Teledentistry allows local service providers to see advice from specialists without the patient having to leave the local practice (Marino et al., 2016).Teledentistry is a domain of telemedicine that emerges from the combination of information communication technology (ICT) and dentistry. For several decades, telemedicine has played a role in bridging gaps and overcoming barriers related to distance through expanding care access to unreachable populations (Estai et al., 2016a). Teledentistry is defined as the use of electronic information and telecommunications technologies to support long-distance clinical oral health care, patient and professional health related education, public health, and health administration (Marino and Ghanim, 2013). It is one of a number of growing solutions to address limited access to dental care is the utilization of telemedicine technologies in the screening for oral diseases, providing care, evaluation of care and referral (Estai et al., 2016c). There are two telemedicine modalities: real-time consultation and store-and-forward. For most dental applications, the store-and-forward method provides excellent results without excessive costs for equipment or connectivity (Daniel and Kumar, 2014). Mobile teledentistry is a subset of telemedicine that incorporates cellular phone technology and store-and-forward telemedicine into oral care services. Almost all smartphones have a built-in camera and mobile connectivity and are readily accessible at a low cost. (Estai et al., 2016d). Despite dental photography becoming an integral part of daily dental practice, it has rarely been used as means of diagnosis, consultation, or referral in routine practice. However, evidence on the use of smartphone cameras in epidemiological dental research is rare (Estai et al., 2017b).Given the need for specialist consultation in the remote parts of Saudi Arabia, there is a need for a study to examine the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in the Kingdom. Since the mixed dentition is the period of maximum dental change for a child, this study focused on the use of mobile phone teledentistry in the mixed dentition.1.2 Aim of the StudyThe aim of the study is to test the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in diagnosis of dental caries of children in the mixed dentition.1.3 Specific Objective of the StudyThe study had the following specific objective, which is to compare the diagnosis of oral caries in the mixed dentition obtained via teledentistry to the diagnosis of these conditions obtained by physical clinical examination.The use of mobile phones and the sharing of photographic data on platforms such as WhatsAppÃ¢â ¢ or InstagramÃ¢â ¢ is a relatively new phenomenon. However, the field of teledentistry itself is not new. This literature review tracks the development of telemedicine and teledentistry. It also looks into the validity and reliability of diagnosis made using photographs. Lastly, it seeks to demonstrate the demographic and human resource challenges that highlight the need for teledentistry in Saudi Arabia.2.1 Development of TeledentistryThe development of telemedicine began in the 1960s, when the United States department of defense decided to establish a data base of interconnected networks to provide healthcare to troops stationed in remote locations (Rocca et al., 1999). The US Army conducted the first study of teledentistry at Fort Gordon, Georgia in July 1994. In this study a dental image management system was used in conjunction with an Intra-oral camera to capture color images of a patient's mouth. These images were then transmitted over a 9600 baud modem from the dental clinic in Fort McPherson, Georgia to Fort Gordon, a distance of 120 miles (Rocca et al., 1999).The initial set up for teledentistry, relied on communication via modems and wire based telephonic communication (Eraso et al., 1996). In the 1990s, the internet gained rapid popularity with the public revealing of the World Wide Web, an entity that had hitherto been a secret US army project. This led to the exploration of newer modes of transmitting data. Reviewing the existing systems of the time, Eraso et al (1996) looked at the effect of digitalizing and transmitting tomographic radiographs. Tomograms of the temporomandibular joint were digitized in three different formats using a PC-based system. The image resolution for various projections was determined at different camera-film distances. Three series of images were transmitted by telephone, and transmission times were measured. They found that while no difference in image quality was found between the initial digitized and the transmitted images; transmitted and transmitted-and-printed images were of significantly lower quality than the original radiographs or the digitized images viewed on a computer monitor (Eraso et al., 1996). In the late 1990s, the national electrical manufacturers association had developed a standard guideline for the storage and transmission of images. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for storing and transmitting medical images enabling the integration of medical imaging devices such as scanners, servers, workstations, printers, network hardware, and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) from multiple manufacturers. It has been widely adopted by hospitals, and is making inroads into smaller applications like dentists' and doctors' offices (Bauer and Brown, 2001, Folke, 2001, Chen and Chen, 2002). Chen and Chen (2002) compared DICOM images to existing videoconferencing techniques for the transmission of dental information. They found that DICOM images greatly reduced the cost of transmitting information without significantly compromising quality. The early part of the new millennium was characterized by the rapid spread of e-mail and electronic communications. The launch and spread of several free email providers such as HotmailÃ¢â ¢, GmailÃ¢â ¢, YahooÃ¢â ¢ etc. meant that scanned images could be transmitted between persons without
Monday, September 16, 2019
I have been a qualified childcare worker since 1997 and thoroughly enjoy the work that I do, however I feel that itÃ¢â¬â¢s only since October 2013 when I started my E100 The early years: Developing practice course that I have have truly developed as a practitioner. I have more knowledge and understanding about what I carry out with the children and the reasoning behind it. Throughout this EMA I plan to analyse the way in which I have developed as a practitioner during the past year. Currently, I work in an extended day care establishment in an urban area of Glasgow. There are around currently 120 children attending on a daily basis and around 85% attend on a full time basis. Our establishment operates 50 weeks a year and is open from 7:30am until 18.00pm. There is currently 35 staff ranging from Head of Centre, Depute head of centre, team leader and child development officers. There are 4 main playrooms, 0-1 room, 1-2 room, 2-3 room and a 3-5 room. I work within the 1-2 year old ro om and there are 12 full time children with 4 full time staff, working on an 1:3 ratio. The curriculum framework that we use is the Pre Birth to Three: Positive outcomes for ScotlandÃ¢â¬â¢s children and families. The Pre Birth to three curriculum framework aims to give ScotlandÃ¢â¬â¢s children the best possible start in life. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s based around four key principles: Rights of the child, Relationships, Responsive Care and Respect. It aims to improve and also enhance our evidence based practice by building on our own knowledge of current research and our work with babies, young children and their families. There are nine features which have been identified to put the key principles into practice. These are Role of Staff, Attachments, Transitions, Observation, planning and assessment, Partnership Working, Health and Wellbeing, Literacy and Numeracy, Environments and Play. All of these key principles and features of practice are interrelated and interdependent. (Learning Teaching Scotland 2010) Part of my job is also about being responsible for my own professional development. If I have a particular interest in a subject that I feel could develop my knowledge further then I need to source all the information possible and carry out whatÃ¢â¬â¢s needed. Peter Moss in chapter 18 of reader 2 offers his own views onÃ an alternative direction for childcare workforce. He pursues the the idea of a democratic and reflective professional, instilled with a number of core values and working in an integrated, inclusive and democratic childhood centre. (Moss,P. 2008) I can see where Peter Moss is coming from in his views as I believe that young children are more likely to learn more from individuals who are knowledgable and well trained and who also enjoy the job that they do. Reflecting on practice is an extremely important aspect of professionalism in all areas of the early years section. Reflective practice involves interacting with, responding to and making links between theories, frame works, literature, policy and practice. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s seen as a collaborative process of learning, growth and development. It also gives us the opportunity to provide opportunities to discuss issues productively. We nowadays live in a time of rapid change in terms of how childhood is thought of and experienced. This now means that we have to question our actions at every given opportunity as well as the need for a deeper understanding of learning and development. Reflective practice involves what Donald Schon called Ã¢â¬Ëreflection in action and Ã¢â¬Ëreflection on actionÃ¢â¬â¢. (Schon, 1983). I believe this to very true on a day to day basis as there are certain experiences that will change during the course the activity itself and at other times there are experienc es that you would change if they were to be done again. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve noticed a change in my practice over the last year. I feel as though I have a better understanding of why I do what I do. An example of this is regarding Attachment theories. They have always been of interest to me but over the last year IÃ¢â¬â¢ve found myself having a clearer understanding of how these theories work! John Bowlby highlighted the significance of young children establishing a strong emotional attachment to a significant adult and the influence that it can have on them as they develop their own relationships during the years. (Bowlby,1958) I always thought I had understood this theory but on reflection from research IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done during my time on the the E100 Developing Practice course i realise that perhaps I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a full understanding ofÃ it. I now know that a secure attachment is vital when working with young children.This is something that John Bowlby believed in as he suggested that babies have a predisposition to stay close to their caregivers. When I am settling a New child into the playroom I will work very closely with both children and parents as I now realise that it is vitally important for me to provide an environment that allows for both space and sensitivity to enable the child to gradually settle into the nursery environment. I feel that part of my role when introducing children into the room is to alleviate any fears that the their parents/ caregivers may have. Mary Ainsworth worked closely with John Bowlby and she believed that a secure and nurturing setting could also help children to develop and maintain a sense of confidence and self esteem. I believe this to be true and I always try to ensure that the relationships I have with the children and families are very positive thus enabling the children to to learn and be happy. I learned that that children can also form emotional attachments to their parents or caregivers. It is through the work of Bowlby and Daniel Stern in study topic 5 that I now understand how crucial it is for me to establish a safe and secure emotional attachment to the children and parents that I look after as this is vital for their emotional Wellbeing. We now operate a Key-worker system and I believe this allows me to form a close bond with the children and parents. I find that when the children in my key group are happy and secure with not only me but the environment around them that this then brings out a secure confident side of the children. I know this as my observations show me that they are more willing to explore and try out new experiences. The Pre-Birth to Three document that I work with highlights that responsive and caring adults are essential for babies and young children to develop and thrive. Practitioners must be aware of attunement which means having the skills needed to enable them to tune in to babies and young children. This determines needs by close observations of the sounds, movements, expressions and body language displayed. We already know that babies are born ready to make connections with the outside world and we must be ready to read these signs in order to develop the skills needed to interact with the wider community. This is something that I have at the forefront of my mind whenever I am working with the children. I am an avid believer that providing a calm and safe but also challenging and stimulatingÃ environment which always offer flexible, individualised and consistent routines is the key to promoting positive relationships and attachments. Another way in which my practice has developed over the year is that I am now have a deeper understand of how the curriculum is used and how the young children I work with learn and develop. The Pre Birth to Three curriculum was brought out in 2010 and before I started the E100 Developing Practice course I only have a very simple understanding of how it worked not only with my practice but wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really sure how it benefited the children that I work with. I realise now that it is a vital document for me within my everyday practice. I recognise now not only the impact but also the importance of my work on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and future life chances. for me the curriculum framework sets the context for a high quality care and education and seeks to identify key features that both support and promote evidence based approaches. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s visible for me to see now that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning is based on a fundamental understanding that there are lots of factors that s hape childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Some of these factors can include relationships, environments, health, family and community. Within the playroom that I work we make sure that every child is treated as an individual, and all experiences that are provided are suited to each childÃ¢â¬â¢s individual needs. I work with a similar age group with the of the Bud Room in The Lark ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s centre (Open University, 2013) and in TMA 03 I noted that our young children are encouraged to be as explorative as possible and whilst they are doing this we are supporting and scaffolding their learning by providing these opportunities for exploring and an example of this would be a painting activity. We would be encouraging the children to explore the Textures and properties. (Stewart. 2013. TMA03) On reflection we observe that the children do get a lot out of this as they are being treated as individuals and encouraged to explore at their own pace thus encouraging them to develop their own schemas. Schematic play is of huge interest to me. Schemas have taught me so much about how children develop and learn over the l ast year. Ã¢â¬Å"Schemas are patterns of behaviour that are linked through a childÃ¢â¬â¢s current interest and which form the basis of exploration and play for young childrenÃ¢â¬ . (Lindon, 2007, pg124) Schemas were first introduced by Jean Paiget and his work has been further developed by Christmas Athey during the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and in Study topic 3 The research discovered that repeating a sequence of like for like physical actions will support brain development. The age group that I work with tend to follow a transporting schema. (Athey, 1990). Our children often show interest in moving objects around the room in various ways. An example of this would be using cars to move building blocks around the room or using household utensils to move jigsaw pieces. This is something that fascinates me as before starting the E100 developing practice module I was very much a person who would almost insist in children keeping items in set areas, whereas now I see the benefits that it brings for children to freely transport these items all over the playroom and my role is to ensure that the learning environment and resources promote many schemas and this is crucial in facilitating childrenÃ¢â¬â ¢s exploration and discovery of their world. This links to my next area of reflection. I have leant a huge amount on environments. Environments play a huge part in the success of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. Ã¢â¬ËChildren learn from, and adapt to, their environment as they build a sense of self esteem from the attitudes and values from significant people around them. Adults who are affectionate, interested, reliable and responsive help young children to develop a sense of trust and positive self imageÃ¢â¬â¢. (Learning teaching scotland 2010 pg 65) During my time researching environments in learning during my time on the E100 developing practice course I now have a deeper understanding in my role as a staff member.its fundamental for me to create an environment where the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s natural curiosity is harnessed. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s essential for us as early years practitioners to work closely with families in promoting a suitable ethos that incorporates respect for the rights of the child, interest and family values. I can now also see that itÃ¢â¬â¢s vital for me to be not only knowledgable but also to an ex tent inspirational, having these factors in place allows a high quality standard of early education to take place. Most babies and young children are sensitive to the moods of the people around them and I believe that they can pick up on staffs emotions for example relaxed, stressed, tense, happy. Our young children look for verbal and non verbal communication signs. I alway ensure that that my demeanour gives out the signs of respect value and love. in study topic 10 developingÃ positive learning environments I learned that I matter what type of space you work in wether it be a shared premises or a converted classroom it is essential to ensure that the area is child-centered. It is vital for us as practitioners to be seen to be promoting a positive enabling environment. In an indoor environment I feel that itÃ¢â¬â¢s essential that the area is warm, safe, secure and spacious given children the opportunity to explore independently. It should also reflect the changing needs of the child, for example in the room I work in the children are learning to walk and as they become more confident in their ability I can provide extra challenges for them to take their abilities further. By doing this I know that I am responding appropriately and positively to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s needs an d preferences. With regards to an outdoor learning environment it has to be remembered that as much emphasis should be placed on outdoor learning and the learning indoors. By doing this I can now see that IÃ¢â¬â¢m ensuring that children are given the opportunities to be involved in experiences that promote a sense of wonder, discovery and challenge. Before I started the course we very rarely went outside with our young children but now there is a significant change as to some suggestions that I made at a room meeting. I mentioned that research suggested that Ã¢â¬Ëbeing outdoors has a positive impact on mental, emotional, physical and social Wellbeing. (Learning teaching scotland 2010 page 68). And as a result of this we are now using our outdoor area several times a day. Our garden now contains a variety of items that benefit the children. We have herb gardens, musical instruments and even a mud kitchen.this small change in our attitude to outdoor play shows me that I now have a much clearer idea of how important it is for me to have a significant emphasis on developing an enabling environment Throughout this module IÃ¢â¬â¢ve reflected on how I have seen the importance of environments can enable learning and promote Wellbeing and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve also had the chance to look in the roles of relationships and partnerships in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s been steep learning curve for me to evaluate my practice and also the theory behind it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s down to reevaluating my practice that itÃ¢â¬â¢s now inspired me to take my learning further. Do you want to belong to a profession that works to transform how aÃ particular body of knowledge is understood and practised with different communities? (Campbell and Page, 2003, pg 282) Campbell and Page have argued that this transformative approach to being a professional is integral to reflective practice. It is with this drive and commitment to professionalism that I have set myself short, medium and long term goals for the future. I have 2 short term goals and they both are essential for taking my learning onto the next level. Passing the E100 module involve me taking the time to read all essential course materials , reflecting on my practice throughout the year and passing all TMAÃ¢â¬â¢s. Better time management is next on the list. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve struggled with this over the last year, working full time, running a home and the joys of having a two year old has been hectic but by working out a really tight schedule for all things important in my life will give me the time and energy needed to focus on my next steps. The medium term goals IÃ¢â¬â¢ve set myself are challenging, but I know I can achieve it. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve enrolled on the E105 professional practice in the early years. In order for me to complete and pass this course I will need to continue evaluating my practice, and present evidence of developing knowledge, skill and expertise against core professional development. My 2nd medium goal is a work based challenge. IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to work with more outside agencies. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve had very little chance to develop a Ã¢â¬Ëcommunity of practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ approach within my everyday practice due to the age group and needs of the children I work with. In order for this to happen I will need to move to another age group and room within the nursery that have the opportunity work with multi agencies. This would enable me to be part of a shared Ã¢â¬Ëcommunity of practiceÃ¢â¬â¢ and be able to reflect and improve practice on a better level. My long term goal is to complete theQ51 course, BA (Honours) Early Years. I plan to study this course over the next 5 years. After the compulsory modules IÃ¢â¬â¢ll then go onto a more complex stage which is dependant on the setting I work in. I will achieve this degree with sheer hard work, focused study skills, good time management and continuing to be a reflective practitioner. Ã¢â¬Ë We need a new type of worker for these services: a worker who can combine many tasks and work with the whole child and her family: a worker who is a reflective practitioner, able to think and act for herself, rather than a technician trained to do as she is told; a worker on a par with the teachers in terms of training and employment conditions.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Moss, 2003, pg.5) This statementÃ highlights for me, the job description that we must adhere to nowadays as early years professionals. Education is constantly evolving and will continue to do so for a very long time. We need to be aware of changes and implement them into our everyday practice whilst always remembering that each child is individual. Each child deserves the best possible start in life and itÃ¢â¬â¢s by constantly reevaluating and changing our practice through reflective learning that will enable this to happen.