Saturday, August 31, 2019

Cultural Similarities and Differences Essay

Mexico and Puerto Rico are two popular countries of South America. They share the passionate language of Spanish, though there are some differences in their dialects. There are similarities and differences between the two countries, such as expectations of family members and structuring, in addition to religious practices, traditions, and art. Both countries possess many unique traits and customs. Mexican and Puerto Rican societies have very similar familial structures. Both countries consider family the foundation of their social structure. They have close family connections and emphasize the concerns for the well-being of the family. Mexicans and Puerto Ricans also have many relatives, which may include a couple of generations on both the father and mother’s sides. In both countries there is a strong bond among the family members. Family members expect support from each other, such as physical, financial, and spiritual. Religion plays a significant role in the Mexican and Puerto Rican cultures. Both Mexico and Puerto Rico contain similar religious beliefs and practices with Roman Catholics. The Mexican characteristics are more rigid and the Roman Catholic Church has an influence on the rigidity of the country. Puerto Rico leans more toward a colorful and liberal religious practice. The most popular of arts and crafts in Puerto Rico are the caretas-papier-mache masks – – masks many wear during island carnivals (Arts & Crafts, 2012). The masks are terrifying, depicting half-animal, and half-demon traits that represent evil. Mexico makes papier-mache masks (papel pegado) but they consist of large heads with friendly faces. Although Mexico produces more arts and crafts than Puerto Rico, both countries use handmade tools and craftsmanship to make items. Mexico and Puerto Rico have many words they spell differently but have the same meaning and vice versa. For instance, the word bicho and pinche are two words both countries use but have different meanings. In Mexico the word Bicho means bug, but in Puerto Rico it refers to a part of the male anatomy.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Hezbullah: Impact of Ideology on Group Structure, Strategy, Targets and Tactics Essay

Hezbullah or Hezbollah, which literally means â€Å"Party of God†, is an organization based on Lebanon. It is a religious-political-paramilitary organization of several thousand Shiite Muslim militants that plays a significant role in the Lebanese politics. Hezbullah, while maintaining to be a major contributor to social programs and services in Lebanon, has been considered an Islamic struggle movement. The group also is a foremost provider of agricultural services, medical aid, and school operations in Lebanon. The group is also a significant and influential power when it comes to the world of Lebanese politics. With its outright mission, to destroy Israel, it has been condemned by many governments – but others have praised the party. Western countries, most notably the United States, consider Hezbullah as a terrorist organization. Other countries that recognize in some part or in whole the group as a terrorist organization include the Great Britain, Australia, Canada and several others. Origins It was in the year 1982 that Hezbullah surfaced in Lebanon as it was invaded by Israel and was dubbed as â€Å"Operation Peace for Galilee†. Hezbullah was set in resistance against the Israeli occupation of Lebanon amid the Lebanese civil war. Inspired by the great Iranian political and religious leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, the leaders went for the training and organization of some Iranian Revolutionary Guards. Although the first manifesto of the group did not directly mention the destruction of Israel, the leaders of Hezbullah made several claims on destroying the â€Å"Zionist entity† forcing themselves to the lands rightful owners own. They referred to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon that during the course, claimed not only livestock, lands, homes, but more especially lives. The group started only as a small militia but slowly gained followers that agree to the views and ideologies of the left-leaning group. They started to gain social power, as getting seats in the Lebanese government, being able to create social development programs, as well as getting control and owning their own radio station and a satellite television station. As Shiite Muslims account for majority of its members, their members now vary from all domain of Lebanese population, especially after the 2006 Lebanon war or the July war that featured the warfare between Israel and Hezbullah themselves. Given their broad tally sheets of members, they are able to mobilize protests to the hundreds of thousands of their members, creating a major concern for the Lebanese government itself. Objectives The 1985 manifesto of the Hezbullah enumerated their three main goals as follows: (1) to put an end to any â€Å"colonialist entity† that existed in Lebanon, (2) to bring the Phalangists, a right-wing party in Lebanon, to justice for the â€Å"crimes† they had perpetrated, and finally (3) to the rightful establishment of an Islamic regime in Lebanon. The manifesto also featured some of the ideologies of the group. The group condemns the â€Å"Zionist occupation of Palestine† outright and added by several claims that â€Å"there is no legitimacy for the existence of ‘Israel’†. The Ideology of Hezbullah is derived from the Islamic Shiite Ideology popularized by Ayatollah Khomeini, known for leading the Islamic revolution in Iran in the 1970’s. The Founding Statement of Hezbullah contains a section that reads: â€Å"We see in Israel the vanguard of the United States in our Islamic world. It is the hated enemy that must be fought until the hated ones get what they deserve. Our primary assumption in our fight against Israel states that the Zionist entity is aggressive from its inception, built on lands wrested from their owners, at the expense of the rights of the Muslim people. Therefore our struggle will end only when this entity is obliterated. We recognize no treaty with it, no cease fire, and no peace agreements, whether separate or consolidated. We vigorously condemn all plans for negotiation with Israel, and regard all negotiators as enemies, for the reason that such negotiation is nothing but the recognition of the legitimacy of the Zionist occupation of Palestine.† It was entitled â€Å"The Necessity for the Destruction of Israel† which pretty much sums it all up. Structure From 1992 up to the present, the organization has been headed its Secretary-General, Hassan Nasrallah. Originally a military commander, but with the background of studying Shiite theology in Iran and Iraq, Nasrallah made it higher in the ranks with ease. Some reports suggest that he took advantage of the inside rivalry in the group to capture the Secretary-General position from Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini. Another leader, Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah, has been the group’s spiritual leader since its founding. However, Fadlallah, died of a liver hemorrhage recently, 4th July 2010, at the age of 75. There is still a huge blank space to be filled in the group’s spiritual leader’s death. One other leader can be considered as the brains of the Hezbullah operations worldwide. It was Imad Fayez Mugniyah who was considered as the key planner, the mastermind, the engineer that finds time to plan details and execution of its terrorist operations. Mugniyah got his talent from experience, training with al Fatah in the 1970’s in the midst of the Lebanese civil war. It was in the 1980’s that the two, al Fatah and Mugniyah, were expelled from Lebanon by Israeli forces. But with his talent and skill, he quickly went up ranks after joining the Hezbullah. However, it was on 13 February, 2008, that Mugniyah was killed in a car bombing incident in Damascus supposedly pinned to Israel but with no solid grounds. The group is structured into three sub-groups namely the Bayt al-Mal, Jihad al Binna and the IRSO (Islamic Resistance Support Organization). Hezbullah gets its finances from support from various governments, Iran, Tehran and Syria, as well as donations from the Lebanese people and both local and international Shiites. With the current finances, the influence and the power both as a group and in the government, its forces gained momentum as gaining several thousands in members. The Lebanese government itself secured Hezbullah’s existence with policies that allow the group to continue on in their fight for liberty and recover occupied lands. According to data from the United States, the two states, Iran and Syria, contribute to not only the finance, but also to the training, weapons, explosive, diplomatic and political aid of the group. Hezbullah is believed to have a budget ranging from $200 million to $500 million, about $100 million coming from Iran. Operations Hezbullah’s main base for operation is in the Lebanon’s Shiite-populated areas. This includes Beirut, Bekaa Valley and southern parts of Lebanon. But with recent intelligence reports from the U. S.  suggest that the group has been starting its expansion of operations, from Africa to Europe, South America and even in North America. The group has at least five thousand core members, consisting of militants and activists. But it varies notably from time to time due to conflicts that the group engages in, most probably conflicts with Israel. US intelligence also reports the presence of at least 60,000 firearms and other weapons in the hands of Hezbullah. It includes both short and long range rockets, and even anti-tank, anti-aircraft and anti-ship arsenals. With periodic conflicts with Israel, people are concerned that a third Lebanon war may erupt if tensions remain high. Although Israel has officially withdrawn from Lebanon in 2000, and despite the UN certification of the withdrawal of all forces, Hezbullah still periodically create problems in the disputed Shebaa Frams border zone. Consequently, a full scale war erupted during the summer of 2006 and if it weren’t for a UN-led-ceasefire, it probably wouldn’t have stopped any time soon. Even so, it stopped only after taking more than a thousand lives and hundreds of thousands homeless or forced to flee especially the five-week long conflict. Some major attacks attributed to Hezbullah includes the kidnapping of several Americans in Lebanon during the 1980’s; suicide attacks in a U. S. Marines barracks in Beirut, Lebanon which kills over two hundred American soldiers; the 1983 U. S. Embassy bombing in Beirut that killed 63 people, including 17 Americans; the French multinational force headquarters bombing in 1983 that killed 58 French soldiers; the hijacking of TWA flight 847 that featured in an infamous footage of a pilot with a gun to his head; an attack that killed hundreds in the Israeli embassy and a Jewish community center both in Argentina in 1992 and 1994 respectively. The most recent major attack claimed by the Hezbullah was on 2006 when they launched a surprise raid on a border post in northern Israel. They took two Israeli soldiers in captive that caused an intense military campaign to be forced against Lebanon. But there was more to the campaign of the Hezbullah. By 2003, they have worked diligently with other Palestinian terrorist organizations such as Hamas, Islamic Jihan, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and especially Tanzim. It has also been reported that Hezbullah has been a major firearms supplier with their allies as in the Hamas. Analysis It has been with mixed decisions whether Hezbullah is to be considered as a terrorist organization or not. It is a known fact that some countries do not consider the group as a terrorist organization in whole. The United States however, has issued statements against the group, considering them to be a highly-organized terrorist organization. To be able to analyze the group itself, there is a need to answer this question: Should the Hezbullah be considered as a terrorist organization? For the sake of unbiased perspective, we must consider all perspectives. In the Hezbullah perspective arguments include that fact that (1) the main ideology of the group is based on Islamic ideologies, only more radical ones, (2) every country has the right to protect and maintain its liberty in ways it can, and finally (3) the group is actually a part of the Lebanese government. But then again, nothing gives the right for any person, group and even a country to declare that a country has no reason to exist and that the country and its people should be obliterated. By this argument plus the known attacks that they have committed and claimed for, it can be concluded that the group can be considered as a terrorist organization. After setting the fact that Hezbullah is a terrorist organization, an analysis can be put in this perspective. From its origin standpoint, the group can be considered outright to be a radical and extremist in thoughts and in action. It is based from their ideological background that was actually derived from a radical form of Islamic Shiite Ideology that Khomeini had started. Its aim, more than anything else, is to destroy the country of Israel and its occupants, and kill the Jews. The structure of the group can be considered to be a help in their aims and objectives. Considering the separate leadership roles in the group, namely the political, religious and military roles, there are good opportunities to focus to their separate roles. There is a much efficient set of directives that would be of help to the members of the group. But there also is a backfire, if there are any occasions that the three leaders would disagree, the whole group could turn into a separate sub groups, reducing considerably the ability to achieve the objectives of the group. Considering the strategies of the organization, it could be noted that this is interwoven with the organizations structure. The military strategies of the group should coincide with both the religious and political perspective of the group, and vice versa. With the strategy of the organization to attaining its aims, they will be bounded by international policies only if they want to. Their tactics to complete their objectives can be considered to have lessened in the amount of violence that they have made in the older movements. Whether it could be accountable for the tighter defense being pushed by their opposition, i. e. U. S. , Israel, or to internal erosion with the group’s desire to succeed, will be a question to be answered in the future. Their targets remained the same, the â€Å"Zionist entity† that they refer to Israel, added to the â€Å"vanguard† of Israel, the United States. But the question mark lies in the present execution of their objectives, whether they will take it hard, as in violence that includes the public, or will they use a more reasonable action. The group structure and strategies very much meet their deed to accomplish its task. They may be planning to be more of a supporting group to other terrorist organization with the way they are moving as of the moment. They have no other engagement as of the moment. A possible scenario could be that the group would slowly blend to other terrorist organizations and would create a larger one, with a bigger objective than the original. They may consider to continue on supplying and supporting groups such as Hamas, to help them achieve their ultimate goal.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Effects of non-verbal communication across cultures Research Paper

Effects of non-verbal communication across cultures - Research Paper Example The ability for one to exchange ideas with another, understand one another’s opinions, and solve problems is highly dependent on the effectiveness of the communication process (Agliati, Anolli, and Vescovo, 2006). According to Kirch (1979), verbal communication refers to the message content, arrangement and choice of words while communicating nonverbally addresses the message sent using body language. Non-Verbal Communication across Cultures The most common of all forms of non-verbal communication is facial expression (Levine and Adelman, 1993). Nevertheless, interpretation of the different facial expressions across cultures is quite hard. Lists of expressions exist with respect to situations, for instance; those that indicate happiness, fear, sadness and anger. This makes it hard for one to identify what expression is being conveyed and for what reason. Carey (1998) reports that â€Å"facial expressions are the most obvious ones that can be quite misleading, because most are pretty good at covering a lie† (350). ... A suitable example is the United States where eye contact and a firm handshake are considered a basic type of nonverbal communication whereas French people toss while looking at each other’s eyes as a symbol of respect and politeness. However, Kirch (1979) argues that other countries or rather other cultures consider avoiding eye contact as a sign of respect, for instance Africa, some parts of Asia and Latin America. Another common form of nonverbal communication used by people on a daily basis is body gesture (Carey, 1998). Good examples of using body gestures include greeting people using visual signals when initiating a presentation, and beckoning to a waiter instinctively. For instance, in a U.S bar, people walk over to the counter to get their bills while in Thailand, people snap their fingers to get their bills from the waiters in charge. In addition, Thai people greet each other by putting their hands together while in the U.S and with many Christians, people put their hands together while paying respect to the Lord God. In some cultures, bidding someone farewell is done by waving hands while in others it is done by embracing each other (Carey, 1998). Furthermore, people in other cultures hug and touch each other more. Habitats of Northern European countries do not fancy this type of bodily contact as compared to residents of southern countries. Some cultures have limited body contact between sexes to relatives only. Bulgarians nod their heads to signify rejection of a prevailing situation while other people in other cultures nod their heads to signify compliance (Carey, 1998). Culture and Nonverbal Communication The way in which people across different cultures communicate is greatly affected by the variations in

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

'Finder' Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

'Finder' Case Study - Essay Example In the process of employee relation activities, mangers should behave in a reasonable and fair manner and also influence other management colleagues to behave in a similar manner. It is important for the managers to appreciate the principle of the procedure of employee relation is to establish a set standard of behaviour. However managers must also appreciate as to why such practice is important to protect and advance the management interest. Change and innovation in the employee relations policies as well as practices helps the firm o gain a competitive advantage over its competitors (Gennard &Judge, 2005, p.4). Therefore it has been said that the management needs to understand the employee relation. This management report deals with a case study of Finder and aims to analyse the current situation of the employees and recommend solutions. In addition to the report a reflective statement has also been provided. Analysis of the Situation Finder Industries was established in the year 1 930s and dealt with high precision engineering manufacturer. It had over the years grown on the basis of high quality and for its innovation in technology. It has been operating in 70 countries and employs about 20,000 people and manufactures patented medical equipments and technologies which are used in the hospitals across the globe. The company has managed to emerged from the global financial crises in a relatively health position. The demand for its products is strong and the new products which are manufactured by the company have been into the fore front of some of the non invasive medical procedure. The company also managed to reduce waste during the production process and improve the productivity eliminating the defects in support of total quality. But the UK site was ranked poor in some related areas and demanded targets for immediate improvement. Employee relation problem As per the case study Finder Industries faced one of the major problems in the area of absenteeism. The cost of absenteeism has been the highest in UK facility especially among the manufacturing operatives and research and development staffs. About 1500 staff was employed in the manufacturing operatives and 200 staff employed in the research and development. The rate of absenteeism was about 10% which was much higher than the industry average. The employees mainly availed the sick leave mainly the long term sick leave. Also short term sick leave was also high such as such as night shift workers being absent on Friday nights, or day operatives absent when scheduled to work on a Saturday. Many of the employees absent were not subject to sanction as they returned to work. As a result they continue to incur the annual leave. Reason behind a large percentage of absenteeism may be due to numerous factors. According to reports, about 40 million days are lost each annual year to workplace absenteeism. Nearly about 93% of the employees quote cold and flu as one of the cause for being absent b ut in reality half of the workers have actually nothing with respect to health. The absenteeism had an inverse impact in the overall UK industry. According to CBI 11.5bn in the year 2002 was paid out through wages to the absent workforce and temporary staff. But however it is important to manage absenteeism and it is actually quite simple to manage absenteeism among the employees (BBC News, 2004). Finder Industries has been reported to have the largest

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND TYPE ERRORS Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND TYPE ERRORS - Assignment Example The Type II error is not rejecting the null hypothesis that the mean weight of a package is 20 ounces when it is in fact false. In other words, we decide that the mean weight of a package is 20 ounces, but in reality, it is different from 20 ounces. When the alternate hypothesis involve less than (â€Å"†) symbols, then the test is a one-tailed test. When the alternate hypothesis involve not equal to (â€Å"≠ Ã¢â‚¬ ) symbol, then the test is a two-tailed test. For example for the problem one scenario, the hypothesis for a one-tailed and a two-tailed test will be P-value: The P-value is referred to as observed significance level or probability value of a hypothesis test. The P-value of a hypothesis test is equal to the smallest significance level at which the null hypothesis can be rejected. In other words, the P-value is referred as the smallest significance level for which the observed sample data results in rejection of H0. Statistically significant: If the P-value of the hypothesis test is less than the significance level (0.05 or 0.01), then the null hypothesis is rejected and the results of the test are said as statistically significant results. 4. A homeowner is getting carpet installed. The installer is charging her for 250 square feet. She thinks this is more than the actual space being carpeted. She asks a second installer to measure the space to confirm her doubt. Write the null hypothesis Ho  and the alternative hypothesis Ha. 5. Drug A is the usual treatment for depression in graduate students. Pfizer has a new drug, Drug B, that it thinks may be more effective. You have been hired to design the test program. As part of your project briefing, you decide to explain the logic of statistical testing to the people who are going to be working for you.   In my opinion, Type II error would be more severe. This is because in this case people will not buy Drug B and hence will not avail better treatment for depression when it is in

Monday, August 26, 2019

Vinatex and Arvind Mills Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Vinatex and Arvind Mills - Essay Example The model is divided into two steps, where in the first phase, the group of successful industry players are plotted for ten important trading countries. At the second stage, the historical competition of certain industries is reviewed, towards exposing the dynamic processes involved in the creation of competitive advantage (Rugman and D'Cruz, 1993). The review entails the historical analysis of the industry and the industry players. SWOT analysis is a structured planning model used during the evaluation of the environment of a business – both internal and external (Hill and Westbrook 1997). The areas reviewed include the internal strengths of the entity and the internal weaknesses of the entity. The other two aspects reviewed are the external surroundings of the entity, particularly, the opportunities available to the business and the threats that face it (Hill and Westbrook 1997). Vinatex Textile Company is a textile company based at Vietnam, and it is one of the largest comp anies in the country. It covers 50 joint stock corporations and 40 joint venture corporations in its productive sector – mainly in the manufacture of textiles. ... The company manufactures different fabrics, and is the fourth-largest manufacturer and exporter of denim. The company runs a mega-art and a value retail chain, all of which stock the brands of the company. Porter’s Diamond Model of Vinatex Textile Company The factor conditions of Vinatex Textile Company include the wide employee base of more than 120,000, which is about 5% of the total employee count for the entire industry. Factor conditions also comprise of diverse company’s production sector, across the 50 joint stock and the 40 joint venture corporations (Do 2008). The diversity of its production sectors enables the company to increase and expand its production to different product lines. The factor conditions in favour of the success of the company include its diverse sectors, including fashion design, fashion magazine, universities, vocational schools, supermarkets, and real estate. These different sectors improve the company’s competitiveness locally and i nternationally. Examples of the competency areas created from the different sectors include that the company uses the fashion magazine to market its fabrics and other product lines. In addition, it uses the university and the vocational training centres to develop the talent required to recruit high-potential talents, which can increase its productivity (Do, 2008). The company uses its supermarket outlet to market its products and fabrics, which enable it to offset the threat of its competitors. The demand conditions are favourable for Vinatex, as Vietnam’s full membership into the world trade organization (WTO), in 2007, opened the production of the company and the country in general, to the world. Following the acquisition of the membership, all restrictions on the trade of textiles were

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Does Teaching Kids To Get 'Gritty' Help Them Get Ahead Annotated Bibliography

Does Teaching Kids To Get 'Gritty' Help Them Get Ahead - Annotated Bibliography Example In this respect, the grit concept helps instilling life skills on the students. This helps in preventing students from becoming slaves to education. However, it is hard to establish the extent to which grit is a determinant of a success among students. This is because it is hard to assess this concept. The concept of grit enhances the performance of students. It works best for students like the virtue of curiosity and courage. Grit is also associated with risks. These include the academic mistakes students are subjected to, in their daily tasks. The fortitude enables the students to stay through the course with regard to their academic performance. This helps students learn and make appropriate improvements. In the long-run, grit becomes a culture, which is based on the self-drive and excellence. Students are bound to learn from the success and failures of other people, who have applied grit in their academic endeavors. It is true that grit helps people to appreciate and explore their potentials in their academic

Herpert Simon Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Herpert Simon - Essay Example These observations lead to Simon’s rejection of the classical economic assumption of prefect-knowledge and to derive â€Å"bounded rationality† in decision making (Simon, etal, 1987). â€Å"In (‘On how to decide what to do’) (Simon) claims, rightly, that traditional economics has too often been concerned with what decisions are made rather than how they are made.† (Hunt 1) How decisions are made is a better real world indicator of how resources are allocated, which is the study of economics. (Hunt 2) Simon’s interest was in how man processes the limited available information and with imperfect logic. Bounded rationality â€Å"refers to peoples limited ability to make comparisons, to see into the future, and, more generally, to process information†. (Cyret 63) Simon created the term â€Å"satisficing†, presumably a hybrid term mixing satisfying and sufficing, to indicate achieving the perceived best position with imperfect informa tion. Preferring a blend of thinking, laboratory work and empirical observations of thinking and decision making, Simon wanted economists to get out of the think tanks and go observe business people making decisions. (Cyret) Simon started with the conviction that human rationality was bounded externally by social constraints and internally by cognitive restraints (Sent 227). People were not truly free to make decisions since conformity and possibility were unquantifiable constraints in the process. Bounded rationality was not concerned with symmetry or macroeconomic functions at all. It is a decision making and problem solving theory not meant to strengthen neoclassical economic thought like Nash’s game theory which Simon considered crude and incomplete. In Simon’s theory, quantification is used to enhance rationality, not create it. The management situation sets the conditions for rational thought; therefore some actions are predisposed to be viewed as nonworking solu tions (Mankelwicz 60). Common sense, or heuristics, actually applies available metrics as a screening tool. â€Å"Human perception may be as bounded in scope as our rationality†. (Mankelwicz 63). Quantitative results may be viewed as symbols, talisman. Managers may experience numbers as moral symbols, guideposts (Mankelwicz 64) Technical rationality, degree of quantification, economic, social, legal politics and political stakeholders, although largely invisible, impact the final decision, certainly the reasonable solution possibilities (Mankelwicz 65). Simon studied bounded rationality, the decision making process, under several disciplines allowing him to consider â€Å"decomposability†, the breakdown of problems into hierarchies, the systems of considering means and ends to reach a decision (Augier & Frank 584). Applying rationality, people cannot have perfect information. So, the decision making process is like the scientific methods of laboratory testing and field data collection. Neither is the sole path to truth. Neither is the sole source of perfect decisions. (Hunt 2) Managers must reach decisions through satisficing, that is being at least as optimal as the competition. It is possible the cost of optimization is greater than the reward. (Hunt 2) As early as the 1960’s, theories of systems were forming. â€Å"A system may be defined as an orderly grouping of separate but interdependent components for the purpose of attaining

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Formal Business Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Formal Business Report - Essay Example imarily taken as benchmark because it is one of the biggest success stories within the fashion industries that have been able to retain its competitive edge even in the tough economic conditions. The firm, ABCD Fashions is recommended to follow the model of Zara and expand its operations globally, especially in emerging economies like India, China. The consultancy report is prepared by the Marketing Manager for the Board members of UK based fashion retailer, ABCD, on the potential of expanding the business across the globe. The major purpose is to recommend the best way to proceed over the next three years in the current competitive business environment. ABCD Fashion is a high-end UK garment retailer which is facing huge competition from domestic and foreign apparel houses. While Primark and Tesco attract customers with their low cost fashion garments, Mark & Spencer, Zara etc. offer a wide range of high-end garments which become very attractive for customers during discount seasons. Today, contemporary fashion is more influenced by the changing socio-cultural paradigms of rapid globalisation and the myriad channels of communication such as the Internet, international magazines, TV etc. have evolved as crucial tools that facilitate greater awareness regarding the changing fashion trend across the customers. Moreover, lack of variety in fashion clothing, problems of cultural biases faced by retailers and the recessive trend in the economy have significantly impacted the performance of the firm and the industry in general. The company therefore, needs to evolve innovative strategy and creative input within its operations to identify a nd exploit new opportunities of growth. Another similar business, Zara, a member of the Inditex group of Spain, was studied and used to compare and contrast the business imperatives vis-Ã  -vis Strategic orientation towards product-market development; competitive strategy pursued; product innovation; technological innovation; and

Friday, August 23, 2019

Reseach (criminology) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reseach (criminology) - Essay Example Campbell (1981) suggested that males were expected to be prosecuted, whereas females are overlooked. Pollak (1961) indicated that females’ offences were hidden and guilty offenders signified only a small fraction of female crime. Heidensohn (1985) suggests that: A qualitative research design was used in the study. The reason for not using a quantitative research design is that it involves extensive surveys and field researches, which was beyond the scope of the present study. For this paper, extensive research of the available literature on the subject was carried out. Widely representative samples of journals related to the topic were selected. Furthermore, recent data from the British Crime Survey was also used in the study. Secondary data in form of fifty journals and recent facts and figures from the British Crime Survey was used as a research method in the study. The reason for this was that the authors of the journals used in the study had already carried out extensive empirical researches on the matter and their findings could be analyzed to get a comprehensive view of the area under study. Also, the British Crime Survey provided an overall view of the number of crimes committed by men and women. The data collected for the research w as both valid and reliable as empirical research had already been carried out by the authors of the journals selected in the research. Moreover, the British Crime Survey is a reliable source of data. Once the journals had been carefully selected, a careful content analysis of the articles was carried out using the Nvivo software which is a valuable tool in interpreting unstructured qualitative data (QSR international 2010). The limitations of the research are that firstly, the British Crime Survey only provides reported crimes. This means that the there could be variance in the data if the unreported crimes were also included in

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Linguistics Plus Essay Example for Free

Linguistics Plus Essay A. The Backround Of Study In the preceding chapters , linguistics has been discussed mainly as the scientific study of languages. According to this view, linguistic is a theoritical, abstract, academic subject. It describes the nature of human language activity in scientific terms and linguistics are see to belong to different schools of thought and to hold competing linguistic theories. We have seen what this view of linguistics has to contribute to language teaching. There is another view of linguistics which cuts across all schools of linguistic thought and is common ground among all linguistics. In this view,linguistics is abody of attitudes and knowledge which result from the study of things like nature of language as a communicative, social activity : language in the individual , his speech mechanism and mental capacities for language : language in society : varieties of language , the rigorous description of particular languages , etc . This common ground the linguistics is immediately relevant to whole field of language teaching . B. The Formulation Of Study Based on the backrgound of study that explained, we formulate some problems that will be explained in this discussion, there are : 1. What is the meaning of psycholinguistics? 2. What is language acquisition? 3. is the first language learning the same as first language acuisition? 4. What is the interference from L1 in learning L2? C. The Perpose Of Writing To obtain a focused, it is necessary to tell the purpose of this paper. The purposes of writing this paper are: 1. Make the readers know about Psycholinguistic , language acquisition , First and second language, Motivation in L2 learning , and Language Interference. 2. Knowing the different between First and Secong Language D. Research Of Methodology. There are many methods that can be used in educational research, such as historical method, descriptive method, experimental method etc. We use the description method in order to meet the purpose of the research. CHAPTER 2 LINGUISTIC PLUS (CHAPTER 6 IN BOOK) A. PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PSIKOLINGUISTIK As its name suggests, psycholinguistics is a field study that combines psychology and linguistics. The term itself was coined in 1951. Though the study had been going on eveb in the nineteenth century in the form of the study of language development. It includes a great variety of topics that are of interest to language teachers. Some of these are: how language is received and produced by language user : our memory span of language: motivation in language learning : how L1 Habits interface with L2 learning billingualism and mental development : the use of language in concept formation; and language acquistion or development. Seperti namanya, psikolinguistik adalah studi lapangan yang menggabungkan psikologi dan linguistik. Istilah itu sendiri diciptakan pada tahun 1951. Meskipun penelitian telah terjadi bahkan pada abad kesembilan belas dalam bentuk studi perkembangan bahasa. Ini mencakup berbagai macam topik yang menarik bagi guru bahasa. Beberapa di antaranya adalah: bagaimana bahasa diterima dan dihasilkan oleh pengguna bahasa: memori kita rentang bahasa: motivasi dalam belajar bahasa: bagaimana Kebiasaan L1 antarmuka dengan pembelajaran belajar L2 dan perkembangan mental: penggunaan bahasa dalam pembentukan konsep, dan akuisisi bahasa atau pembangunan. B. LANGUAGE ACQUISTION TRANSISI BAHASA The last mentioned topic is currently being much investigated by TG grammarians because their linguistic theory makes such on the language producing ability of human beings. It is therefore of interest to them, as it is to teachers, to find out how language is acquired. ( it may be noted at this point that they make a distinction between language acquisition or development and language learning . The first language or mother tongue is acquired, while the second language is learned. ) Topik terakhir yang disebutkan saat ini sedang diselidiki oleh banyak tatabahasawan tradisional grammar karena teori linguistik mereka membuatnya seperti bahasa dapat menghasilkan kemampuan manusia. Oleh karena itu sangat menarik bagi mereka, terutama untuk guru, untuk mengetahui bagaimana bahasa diperoleh. (Mungkin terdapat pada bahasan ini bahwa mereka membuat perbedaan antara penguasaan bahasa atau pengembangan dan pembelajaran bahasa asli atau bahasa ibu yang langsung diperoleh, sedangkan bahasa asing harus dipelajari. ) There are two theories of language acquisition: the cognitive-code learning theory f-voured by the transformational generative linguists and the habit-formation theory of the structural linguists. The habit-formation theory is in effect the aplication of learning theory to language acquisition. It involves conditioning and reinforcement to shape a response until it is like the model . An example mat make the process clear. An infant may accidentally produce what sound like â€Å"mama† ,on his babbling and the mother reinforces this by smiling , kissing, cuddling him.. This encourages him to produce the sounds again and the nearer they approach the word â€Å"mama† , the more pleasure the mother shows until the child learns to say the word correctly every time with reference to her. The whole process is described as â€Å" shaping† the response and strengthening it by selective reinforcement. The response is encouraged to recur or strengthened by the smile or nod , or whatever is reinforcing to the child. Repeated occurences of the response from habit. Imitation plays as important a role as repetition in the theory. The child imitates the adults he hears and is again reinforced for correct responses. This theory of language acquisition is based on the view that language is behaviour that results from habits and habits are formed by practice and repetion. Ada dua teori akuisisi bahasa: teori belajar kode kognitif mempelajari teori f-voured oleh ahli bahasa transformasi generatif linguistik dan teori-kebiasaan hasil pembentukan ahli bahasa struktural. Teori formasi kebiasaan yang pada kenyataannya aplikasi dari teori belajar akuisisi bahasa. Ini melibatkan pengkondisian dan penguatan untuk membentuk respon sampai seperti model atau contoh yang ada, misalnya sebuah kaset untuk membuatnya sebagai contoh. Contoh lain adalah Bayi yang dapat menghasilkan sebuah kata yang terdengar seperti mama, saat mengoceh dan ibunya memperkuat ini dengan memberikan senyuman, mencium,atau memeluk dia . Hal ini dapat mendorong dia untuk menghasilkan suara lagi dan semakin dekat dengan kata mama yang sebenarnya, respon senang yang ditunjukan ibunya itu terus ditunjukan hinngga anak belajar mengucapkan kata kata dengan. Seluruh proses yang digambarkan sebagai pembentuk respon dan penguatan dengan penguatan selektif. Respon yang didorong untuk muncul kembali atau diperkuat oleh senyum atau anggukan, atau apapun yang dapat memperkuat kepada anak untuk melakukan sesuatu. Kejadian yang diulang dari respon dan dari kebiasaan. Permainan meniru sama penting peranannya sebagai teori. Anak meniru orang dewasa, ia mendengar lagi dan diperkuat oleh respon yang diberikan orang disekitarnya. Teori pemerolehan bahasa didasarkan pada pandangan bahwa bahasa adalah perilaku yang dihasilkan dari kebiasaan dan kebiasaan yang dibentuk oleh praktek dan pengulangan. The cognitive-code learning theory states that language is rule-governed behaviour and that in language acquisition, the infant learns the set of rules that will produce the sentences of the language. How does he arrive at the set of rules? TG grammarians say human beings are born with a language acquisition device (LAD), which enables the child to form a series of hypotheses about the language which he hears , as he grows up. At each stage in his language development he tests his hypothesis (the set of rules he has formulated so far) against what he hears ( the language data) and revises it accordingly , until he reaches adult competence. But what does the LAD consist of? The theory is that it consists of those linguistic universals to be found the deep, deep structure of all languages. There is no agreement or certainty yet about what these universals are apart from the  fact that they must be certain abstract syntactic and semantic categories and relationships, though there may be a neurophysiological basis in the brain. Examples of such relationships which have been postulated are: those between noun and verb as in case grammar; that between subject and predicate; and catagories like NP , VP , Adv. These universals are said to be present in the structure of all languages but each language realises them in different way in surface structure and language learning consists in learning how it is done in that particular language . The linguists are making cross-cultural studies of language acquisition in order to get evidence of linguistic universals, but the data collected so far are still sketchy though certain features in language appear in about the same sequence and at about the same age all over the world. Teori Kode kognitif belajar menyatakan bahwa bahasa adalah aturan aturan perilaku dan bahwa dalam akuisisi bahasa, bayi mempelajari seperangkat aturan yang akan menghasilkan kalimat bahasa. Bagaimana ia bisa sampai pada seperangkat aturan? Tatabahasawan TG mengatakan manusia dilahirkan dengan perangkat penguasaan bahasa (LAD), yang memungkinkan anak untuk membentuk serangkaian hipotesis tentang bahasa yang ia dengar, saat ia tumbuh. Pada setiap tahap dalam perkembangan bahasa, ia menguji hipotesis tersebut (seperangkat aturan yang telah dirumuskan sejauh ini) terhadap apa yang ia dengar (data bahasa) dan merevisi (menerjemahkan artinya), sampai ia mencapai kompetensi dewasa. Tapi apa saja penyusun LAD itu ? Tidak ada kesepakatan atau kepastian tentang apa saja penyusun LAD tersebut dan tak ada yang terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa orang orang universal linguistik harus memastikan kategori sintaksis dan semantik abstrak, meskipun mungkin ada dasar neurofisiologi di otak. Contoh hubungan tersebut yang telah disebutkan adalah antara nomina dan verba seperti dalam tata bahasa, bahwa antara subjek dan predikat, dan kategori seperti NP, VP, Adv. Itu dikatakan terdapat dalam struktur dari semua bahasa, tetapi setiap bahasa menempatkan mereka dengan cara yang berbeda dalam struktur permukaan dan pembelajaran tertentu. Para ahli bahasa membuat studi lintas-budaya , untuk mendapatkan bukti yang umum tentang linguistik, tetapi data yang dikumpulkan sejauh ini masih samar meskipun fitur tertentu dalam bahasa muncul di sekitar urutan yang sama dan pada sekitar usia yang sama di seluruh dunia . The teacher of second language needs to take of these two theories of language acquisition since they have given rise to schools of thought on language teaching. If language acquisition is a matter of habit formation, then the language teacher must concentrate on performance. Let the pupils imitate a model and give them plenty of pattern drill to establish habits of behaviour. Reinforce them gor correct responses and elimitate wrong responses by a lack of reinforcement. Let them learn inductively, inferring the rules for themselves after much practice rather than receiving the rules for explanations at the begining. If, on the other hand, language acquisition is a matter of learning a code, then the language teacher must ensure that the pupils internalise the rules yhat will enable them to produce sentences. Explanations of the sentences structures and explicit knowledge of the rules must then play a larger rule in language teaching. Para guru bahasa kedua perlu mengambil dari kedua teori pemerolehan bahasa karena mereka telah melahirkan aliran pemikiran pengajaran bahasa. Jika akuisisi bahasa adalah masalah pembentukan kebiasaan, maka guru bahasa harus berkonsentrasi pada kinerja. Biarkan siswa meniru model dan memberi mereka banyak bor pola untuk membangun kebiasaan perilaku. Memperkuat mereka tanggapan gor benar dan elimitate tanggapan yang salah oleh kurangnya penguatan. Biarkan mereka belajar induktif, menyimpulkan aturan untuk diri mereka sendiri setelah banyak latihan daripada menerima aturan untuk penjelasan di awal. Jika, di sisi lain, penguasaan bahasa adalah masalah belajar kode, maka guru bahasa harus memastikan bahwa siswa menginternalisasi yhat aturan akan memungkinkan mereka untuk menghasilkan kalimat. Penjelasan dari struktur kalimat dan pengetahuan eksplisit aturan kemudian harus memainkan aturan yang lebih besar dalam pengajaranbahasa. How is the language teacher to decide between the two theories of language learning? What grammatical theory is most useful to language teachers? To answer these questions, i would just like to refer the reader to the paper by J. B Carroll that i cited in chapter 1. In that paper he says. â€Å"it would be pretentious to try to express an opinion on which of the various grammatical theories is most vailed. Different grammatical theories have somewhat different goals in general. I believe that language teacher should evaluate grammatical theories in terms of the degree to which they comform to the linguistic habits that actually enable a language user to speak and understand the language†. Bagaimana guru bahasa untuk memutuskan antara dua teori pembelajaran bahasa? Apa teori tata bahasa yang paling berguna untuk guru bahasa? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini, saya hanya ingin merujuk pembaca untuk kertas oleh JB Carroll yang saya dikutip dalam bab 1. Dalam kertas yang katanya. Itu akan sok mencoba untuk mengekspresikan pendapat yang dari teori gramatikal berbagai paling vailed. Teori tata bahasa yang berbeda memiliki tujuan yang agak berbeda secara umum. Saya percaya bahwa guru bahasa harus mengevaluasi teori tata bahasa dalam hal sejauh mana mereka comform ke kebiasaan linguistik yang benar-benar memungkinkan pengguna bahasa untuk berbicara dan mengerti bahasa . As for theories of language learning. Carroll suggest a synthesis of the two. I am inclined to agree with him that neither a pure â€Å"audiolingual habit theory† nor a pure â€Å"cognitive-code learning theory† can be comprehensive and correct. Each of the theories contains elements of truth, and each therefore to some degree wrong or incomplete. We need to extract what is valuable for each theory and put them together. Carroll calls the synthesis â€Å"cognitive habit-formation theory†. Adapun teori belajar bahasa. Carroll menyarankan sintesis dari dua. Saya cenderung setuju dengan dia bahwa baik murni kebiasaan teori audiolingual atau murni kognitif-kode teori belajar bisa tidak lengkap dan benar. Setiap teori mengandung unsur kebenaran, dan masing-masing karena itu untuk beberapa derajat yang salah atau tidak lengkap. Kita perlu untuk mengambil apa yang berharga bagi teori masing-masing dan menempatkan mereka bersama-sama. Carroll menyebut sintesis kognitif kebiasaan-formasi teori. The audiolingual habit theory is correct in that language behaviour is partly a matter habits. The audiolingual method with its emphasis on pattern practice and formations of habits fell out of favour because the theory made the wrong assumtions about that kinds of habits to form and how to form them. Instead of forming habits that have to do. For instance, with substituting words in sentences or with changing one kind of sentences into another. teacher sould form functional habits. The diffferent between the two is that the former takes no account of language ude in actual situations (where is the occasion for substitution for tables in real life outside the classroom?) while the latter does. For example, in teaching commands and requests, it is not enough to present the learners with statements to be changed into commands or requests. The stimulus is the sentence in the case. In forming fumctional habits the stimulus is the situations, the intentions and the listener. In situation A, if you need help you just shout â€Å"help! † ; in situation B, you may say, â€Å"please help me† or â€Å"could you helm me? † ; in situation C, you may say, â€Å"would you mind helping me? † and so on. Teori Kebiasaan audiolingual benar dalam perilaku bahasa adalah kebiasaan sebagian materi. Metode audiolingual dengan penekanan pada praktek pola dan formasi dari kebiasaan jatuh dari nikmat karena teori membuat assumtions salah tentang hal itu jenis kebiasaan untuk membentuk dan bagaimana membentuk mereka. Alih-alih membentuk kebiasaan yang harus dilakukan. Misalnya, dengan mengganti kata-kata dalam kalimat atau dengan mengubah satu jenis kalimat menjadi lain. Guru arwah membentuk kebiasaan fungsional. The diffferent antara keduanya adalah bahwa mantan tidak memperhitungkan bahasa ude dalam situasi yang sebenarnya (di mana merupakan kesempatan untuk substitusi untuk tabel dalam kehidupan nyata di luar kelas?) Sedangkan yang kedua tidak. Sebagai contoh, dalam mengajar perintah dan permintaan, itu tidak cukup untuk menyajikan peserta didik dengan pernyataan yang akan diubah menjadi perintah atau permintaan. Stimulus adalah kalimat dalam kasus ini. Dalam membentuk kebiasaan fumctional stimulus adalah situasi, maksud dan pendengar. Dalam situasi A, jika Anda memerlukan bantuan Anda hanya berteriak membantu! , Dalam situasi B, Anda mungkin berkata, tolong bantu saya atau bisa Anda helm saya? , Dalam situasi C, Anda mungkin berkata, bisakah kau membantu saya dan sebagainya?. Carroll also points out that the audingual habit theory wrongly assumed that practice and repetion were crucial factors in the formation of habits. Although practice and repetition have certain roles to play, they are not crucial in learning. Succesive repetition of the same response is, in fact, generally the wrong way to â€Å"stamp in† a habit; there are few kinds of learning where this is effective. Evocation of the response on a number of aperiodic, widely-spaced occasions, with interpolation of different material in the intervals, is a much more effective method has been insufficiently employed in pattern drills. Carroll juga menunjukkan bahwa teori kebiasaan audingual salah diasumsikan bahwa praktek dan pengulangan adalah faktor penting dalam pembentukan kebiasaan. Meskipun praktek dan pengulangan memiliki peran tertentu untuk bermain, mereka tidak penting dalam belajar. Pengulangan berturut dari respon yang sama, pada kenyataannya, umumnya cara yang salah untuk cap di kebiasaan, ada beberapa jenis belajar di mana ini efektif. Kebangkitan dari respon pada sejumlah aperiodik, luas-spasi kesempatan, dengan interpolasi dari bahan yang berbeda dalam interval, adalah metode yang jauh lebih efektif telah kurang digunakan dalam latihan pola. The element of truth in the cognitive-codelearning theory is that a knowledge of the facts and formal rules of the language can really be of help in guiding the learner to form the right language habits. However, knowledge of the rule alone is of on avail unless the learner is given opportunities to form the habits in the way suggested above. Forthermore, the facts of the language should be presented in a form easy to understand, and appropriate to the learner’s age and ability. Abstract rule should be illustrated with a number of concrete examples. Unsur kebenaran dalam teori kognitif-codelearning adalah bahwa pengetahuan tentang fakta-fakta dan aturan formal bahasa benar-benar dapat membantu dalam membimbing peserta didik untuk membentuk kebiasaan bahasa yang tepat. Namun, pengetahuan tentang aturan saja dari pada berhasil kecuali pelajar diberikan kesempatan untuk membentuk kebiasaan dalam cara yang disarankan di atas. Forthermore, fakta bahasa harus disajikan dalam bentuk yang mudah dimengerti, dan sesuai dengan usia peserta didik dan kemampuan. Aturan abstrak harus diilustrasikan dengan sejumlah contoh konkret. C. FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA PERTAMA DAN KEDUA A question often discussed with regard to second language learning is whether it is the same as first language acquisition. The answer depends on the stage at which the second language is learned. If it is learned at an early age before the first language is thoroughly mastered, or almost simultaneously with the first language then second language learning parallels first language learning. If it is learned at a later stage in the formal school setting, there are several observable differences. First of all, the child is exposed to the first language all his waking hours while he probably hears the second language only during the class hour. Secondly, there is a big difference in motivation. A child learning his first language is strongly motivated because his needs and wishes are satisfied by the use of language and his control of his environment and himself increases with his increasing mastery of his mother tongue. Not only this, but emotional and social ties are created by his use of the first language. The second language seldom fulfils such function when it is learned as a subject in the curriculum. Thirdly, as the child learns the first language he is also learning the concepts, while in learning the second language he seldom has to form new concepts except where these are foreign to his own culture. Finally, the habits established in first language learning tend to inhabit and interfere with his learning of the second language. It is also claimed that there is a critical period for language acquisition which extends up to puberty. But according to Carroll: â€Å"the evidence for a ‘critical period’ and decline in language acquisition ability during the middle school years is not strong, however, and even if there is some decline. I am not persuaded that one must appeal to biology to explain it. † (p. 109) Krashen has since confirmed Carroll’s view. Suatu pertanyaan yang sering dibahas terkait dengan pembelajaran bahasa kedua adalah apakah pembelajarannya sama dengan akuisisi bahasa pertama. Jawabannya tergantung pada tahap di mana bahasa kedua dipelajari. Jika dipelajari pada usia dini sebelum bahasa pertama benar-benar terkuasai, atau hampir bersamaan dengan bahasa pertama, maka pembelajaran bahasa kedua sejajar dengan pembelajar bahasa pertama. Jika dipelajari pada tahap berikutnya dalam bentuk sekolah formal, ada beberapa perbedaan yang diamati. Pertama-tama, anak terkena bahasa pertama selama dia terjaga sementara dia mungkin mendengar bahasa kedua hanya selama jam sekolah. Kedua, ada perbedaan besar dalam motivasi. Seorang anak belajar bahasa pertamanya sangat termotivasi karena kebutuhan dan keinginannya terpuaskan dengan manfaat bahasa dan kendali lingkungannya dan dirinya sendiri meningkat dengan meningkatnya penguasaan â€Å"bahasa ibunya†. Tidak hanya itu, tapi hubungan emosional dan sosial terciptaka oleh penggunaanya terhadap bahasa pertama. Bahasa kedua jarang memenuhi fungsi tersebut bila dipelajari sebagai subjek dalam kurikulum. Ketiga, ketika anak belajar bahasa pertama dia juga belajar konsep, sedangkan dalam mempelajari bahasa kedua jarang ia harus membentuk konsep-konsep baru kecuali konsep-konsep itu asing bagi budayanya sendiri. Akhirnya, kebiasaan-kebiasaan pada pembelajaran bahasa pertama cenderung menghuni dan mengganggu pembelajaran bahasa kedua. Hal ini juga menyatakan bahwa ada periode kritis bagi penguasaan bahasa yang meluas sampai masa puber. Tetapi menurut Carroll: bukti untuk periode kritis dan penurunan kemampuan akuisisi bahasa selama pertengahan masa sekolah tidak kuat, bagaimanapun, dan bahkan jika ada beberapa penurunan. Saya tidak yakin bahwa seseorang harus menarik biologi untuk menjelaskannya (hal. 109). Krashen sejak mengkonfirmasi pandangan Carroll. There is one respect in which learning a first language is similar to learning a second language: it is in the process itself. Just as the young child makes generalisations and says â€Å"foots† or â€Å"goed†, so the Malay learner of English as a second language may over-generalise and say â€Å"foot of the sky† when he means the horizon. In second language learning there is also imitation and modelling, just as there is in first language learning. Ada suatu kecocokan dimana pembelajaran bahasa pertama mirip dengan belajar bahasa kedua: yaitu dalam proses itu sendiri. Sama seperti anak muda yang membuat generalisasi dan mengatakan foots atau goed, begitu pula pelajar Melayu yang belajar Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa kedua mungkin over-generalisasi dan mengatakan foots of the sky ketika ia bermaksud mengatakan â€Å"the horizon†. Dalam pembelajaran bahasa kedua ada juga imitasi dan modeling, seperti yang ada dalam pembelajaran bahasa pertama. D. MOTIVATION IN L2 LEARNING MOTIVASI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN L2 It was mentioned above that there was a difference in motivation between first and second language learning. It is the lack of motivation that produces little or no difference in student performance in response to improved teaching methods or materials. This problem of motivation in second language learning has been studied and two kinds of motivation have been distinguished. One is called instrumental motivation: this is when the student learns the second language for instrumental purposes. For example, it may be a compulsory school subject or it may be required for post –graduate work, for his career or for travel abroad. There is no desire on his part to go beyond the language as a tool to fulfil rather limited purposes. The other kind of motivation is called integrative. In this case, the student learns the second language with the desire to identify himself with the native speakers and to enrich his life by contact with another culture. It was found that students with integrative motivation have greater success at learning the second language than those with merely instrumental motivation. Telah disebutkan di atas bahwa ada suatu perbedaan dalam motivasi antara belajar bahasa pertama dan kedua. Ini adalah kekurangan dari motivasi bahwa motivasi menghasilkan sedikit atau tidak adanya perbedaan terhadap prestasi siswa dalam menanggapi metode pengajaran atau materi. Masalah motivasi dalam belajar bahasa kedua ini telah dipelajari dan dua jenis motivasi telah dibedakan. Satu disebut motivasi instrumental: yaitu ketika siswa belajar bahasa kedua untuk tujuan instrumental. Sebagai contoh, mungkin suatu subjek sekolah yang wajib atau mungkin diperlukan untuk tugas pasca sarjana, untuk karirnya atau untuk perjalanan ke luar negeri. Tidak adan keinginan pada bagiannya yang melampaui bahasa sebagai alat untuk memenuhi tujuan yang terbatas. Jenis lain dari motivasi disebut integratif. Dalam hal ini, siswa belajar bahasa kedua dengan keinginan untuk mengidentifikasi dirinya dengan penutur asli dan memperkaya hidupnya dengan kontak dengan budaya lain. Ditemukan bahwa siswa dengan motivasi integratif memiliki keberhasilan yang lebih besar dalam mempelajari bahasa kedua dibandingkan dengan motivasi instrumental. E. LANGUAGE INTERFERENCE GANGGUAN BAHASA Another aspect of psycholinguistics that is directly relevant to second language teacher has been touched upon in discussing contrastive analysis. That is, the study of interference from L1 in learning L2. The theory is that in learning L1 certain habits of perceiving and performing have to be established and the old habits tend to interlude and interfere with the learning, so that the student may speak L2 with the intonation of his L1 or the word order of his L1, and so on. We noted in the last chapter that though such interference does occur, not all errors in L2 learning can be accounted for by interference from L1. L2 learning like L1 acquisition appears to proceed by stages when new bits of the language are imperfectly learned, giving rise to what has been called interlanguage. Aspek lain dari psikolinguistik yang secara langsung relevan dengan guru bahasa kedua telah disinggung dalam pembahasan analisis kontrastif. yaitu, the study of interference from L1 in learning L2. Teorinya adalah bahwa dalam belajar L1 kebiasaan dalam mengamati dan performing harus dibentuk dan kebiasaan lama cenderung selingan dan mengganggu pembelajaran, sehingga siswa berbicara L2 dengan intonasi L1-nya atau urutan kata L1-nya , dan seterusnya. Kami mencatat dalam bab terakhir bahwa meskipun gangguan tersebut tidak terjadi, tidak semua kesalahan dalam pembelajaran L2 dapat dipertanggungjawabkan oleh gangguan dari L1. pembelajaran L2 seperti akuisisi L1 muncul untuk melanjutkan secara bertahap ketika bit baru dari bahasa tidak dipelajari secara sempurna, sehingga menimbulkan apa yang disebut interlanguage. CHAPTER III CONGCLUTION From chapter 2 in this report , we make some point : 1. Psycholinguistics is a field study that combines psychology and linguistics. The term itself was coined in 1951. Though the study had been going on eveb in the nineteenth century in the form of the study of language development. It includes a great variety of topics that are of interest to language teachers. 2. theory of language acquisition is based on the view that language is behaviour that results from habits and habits are formed by practice and repetion. 3. If the second is learned at an early age before the first language is thoroughly mastered, or almost simultaneously with the first language then second language learning parallels first language learning. If it is learned at a later stage in the formal school setting, there are several observable differences. different motivation. Emotional and social ties are created by his use of the first language. Meanwhile, The second language seldom fulfils such function when it is learned as a subject in the curriculum. When we Learn first language, we also learn the concepts, while in learning the second language we seldom has to form new concepts except where these are foreign to his own culture. 4. The old habits tend to interlude and interfere with the learning, so that the student may speak L2 with the intonation of his L1 or the word order of his L1, and so on.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Nature And Extent Of Globalisation Economics Essay

Nature And Extent Of Globalisation Economics Essay Globalisation in layman term, is commonly understood as the spread and connectedness of production, communication and technologies across the world. The International Monetary Fund defines globalisation as the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, freer international capital flows, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation involves the exchange of culture, practices and technologies. It is more than internationalisation, thus has powerful economic, political, cultural and social dimensions. There are three main indicators of globalisation. These are international trade, the transfer of money capital and the movement of people between countries. Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or business to the end-user. Retailers are part of the supply chain. There are different types of retailers, such as department stores, discount stores, warehouse stores, convenience stores, hypermarkets, supermarket, malls and e-tailers. The retail industry can be divided into several strategic groups from small to super scale. Among all these strategic groups, Tesco, Carrefour, Wal Mart, Metro AG and Kroger are global top five retailers that have similar business models or similar combination of strategies. The aerospace industry includes authorities and companies involved in the manufacturing, operating and maintenance of aircraft, engines and aircraft equipments. There are different civil aviation stake holders, such as governments (Federal Aviation Administration, United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority, Civil Aviation Administration of China), airlines (British Airways, Cathay Pacific Airways, United Airlines), maintenance repair organisations (Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company, Singapore Aircraft Engineering Company), manufacturers (Boeing, Airbus, Rolls Royce), and private aircraft owners. The aviation industry can also be divided into several strategic groups which cover a large scope of business. Among all these strategic groups, Pratt Whitney, General Electric, CFM International and Rolls Royce are global top four civil aero engine manufacturers that have similar business models or similar combination of strategies. PESTEL analysis stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (Appendix Table 1). It is a tool to conduct a strategic analysis and provide an overview of the different macro environmental factors that the company has to take into consideration to formulate the company strategy. In this portfolio we will focus on China Political, Economic, Technological in the areas of retail business and civil aviation. China with a population of over 1.3 billion is the worlds most populous country. China is the second largest county in the world by land area. Its total area is around 9,600.000 square kilometer. Since the economic reforms in 1978, China has become the worlds fastest-growing major economy. In 2012, China becomes the worlds second-largest economy, after the United States. It is also the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a single party state governed by the Communist Party. In 2011, Chinas GDP is around RMB47.2 trillion (1GBP=9.86RMB) , GDP growth rate 9.5%, income per capita RMB33,777, labour force 815.3 million, unemployment rate 6.1% and inflation 3.2%. The official language of China is Mandarin. English is popular among the younger. The literacy rate is 92.8%. The number of internet users reaches 500 million. Tianhe-1A worlds fastest supercomputer was developed in 2011. China has been the one of the states capable of sending human to the space. In 2009 the total sales in Chinas top 100 supermarkets is RMB575.6 billion, with CAGR of 15.6% from 2006 to 2009. The total number of supermarket outlets is 23,814. The Foreign-funded supermarket enterprise entered into China market in 2004 after the Chinese government lifted the restrictions on foreign capitals entry into Chinas retail industry. In 2009, the eight foreign-funded supermarkets including Carrefour, Wal-Mart and RT-Mart recorded total sales of RMB175.71 billions, with a total of 785 stores (Appendix 1, Table 2). The 31 domestic supermarkets (Better-Life, New Huadu, Wu Mart and Lianhua) recorded total sales of RMB391.3 billions, with a total of 23,004 stores. In the civil aviation sector, according to the forecast of Aviation Industry Corporation of China, China will have an increase of 4,583 civilian aeroplanes in the next 20 years. Chinese commercial aeroplane market will undoubtedly grow rapidly. To the year 2030, Chinas share of global aircraft fleet will increase from 9% to 15%. In addition, the business jet market has a huge growing capacity in the global industry. In the near future, China is still unable to produce its own commercial aero engine for its jets. All the civil aero engines are imported from overseas. The major players are Pratt Whitney, General Electric, CFM International and Rolls Royce. To help our clients understand the difference between United Kingdom and China Market in order to formalising their strategies, we apply the Ghemawats CAGE Distance Framework indentifying Cultural, Administrative, Geographic and Economic difference or distance between United Kingdom and China. Socio-cultural difference such as Religion and Values are important factors affecting the companies enter into China Market. Chinas traditional religions are Buddhism and Taoism while Christianity and Catholicism are two major religions in United Kingdom. Western and Chinese companies conduct business in a very different way. In traditional Chinese societies, personal contacts and relationship are built around kinship and local network especially in retail industry. English is United Kingdoms national language where in China Mandarin is the most spoken language. This difference affects more on high end civil aviation industry than the retail industry. Ghemawat says Political barriers will remain a part of the picture for those globalizing their operations. China adopted a closed door policies until the mid-1970, the liberalisation of China after 1978 has resulted in the political climate being less restrictive than before. China accession into World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 2001 is an important milestone for the countrys economy. After entering into WTO, China started the reform to liberalise trading rights, eliminate no tariff barriers, improve market access to goods and services, reduce traffic rates and protect intellectual property rights. Although Chinese government try the best efforts to promote rule of law, systemic and endemic corruption, lack of transparency, inconsistently enforced laws and regulations, an unreliable legal system and weak intellectual property protection remain to be the barriers to business profitability in China. The level of state involvement in the economy through large number of state owned ente rprise remain high creating distortions in the market and protectionist measures for local and state enterprises continue to impede fair trade and competition. After the 2008 financial crises, there is a phenomenon that many private owned business were acquired by the state owned enterprise due to lack of liquidity. Chinas time zone is eight hours ahead of London and the flying time between two capitals is around ten hours. Ongoing structural reforms in China, export growth and investment has resulted in annually real GDP growth rates of around 10% over the past 4 years. Sustained high growth has reduced poverty and creating huge demand on consumer goods and air travel which generate business opportunity in both retail and aviation industry.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Exploring Swot Analysis And Competitive Advantage Strategic Management Business Essay

Exploring Swot Analysis And Competitive Advantage Strategic Management Business Essay The study by Helms and Nixon (2010) identifies that SWOT analysis has grown as a key tool for addressing complex strategic situations by reducing the quantity of information to improve decision making. SWOT is short form of four words which is strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It can simply understand as the examination of an organizations internal strengths and weaknesses, and its external environment which is opportunities and threat that provides the foundation for realization of the desired alignment of organization variables or issues. Therefore, an understanding of all external and internal factors is assists in forming a vision of the future. According to Helms and Nixon (2010), SWOT is a general tool designed to be used in the beginning stages of decision making and as a precursor to strategic planning in various kinds of applications. In summarized, a person is allowed to do something in condition he or she is known strengths and weaknesses and understand the opportunities and threats his or her has currently. In addition, all organizations are hope to gaining competitive advantage. It can be gain through offering consumers greater value, either by providing lower prices or by providing greater benefits or services that justifies higher prices. The aim of much of business strategy is to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage that could increase the business profitability and brand image. SWOT ANALYSIS A SWOT analysis was systematically applied at a national level when preparing the afore-mentioned long-term strategy. However, it is clear that only the quality performance of a SWOT analysis will form a suitable strategic structure. Therefore, the organization environment will much influence organization performance now and in the future. The detail of SWOT analysis is explained in following sections. Internal Environment Internal environment are an internal factors within an organization in many areas such as management, staff, finance, research and development, operational efficiency and capacity, technical frameworks, culture, and organizational structure. Internal environment consists of strengths and weaknesses in organization, those viewed as a result of factors and variables that can be controlled within organizations. Strengths Strengths are represents the organizations internal power and strong points of view that an organization possess to compete against its competitors. It also can be view as organizational capabilities and internal positive attitudes that enable organizations possess strategic power to achieve organizational goals. It also can define as skills and abilities that enable organizations set out and implement their strategies in order to do better than their competitors. Weaknesses Weaknesses are represents the organizations negative impact of product and service value with regards to customers or competitive environment. It also can define as shortages in internal capabilities that make organizations unable to achieve their goals or lose their competitive advantage. This may allow their competitors to do better than the organization performance. Thus, it should be determine and acknowledge earlier in order bitter reality without procrastination. External Environment External environment is contains all changes that take places outsides the organizations boundary such as customers, suppliers, economic, political, cultural, and technological changes. External environment consists of opportunities and threats of an organization. Opportunities Opportunities are defined as a set of conditions suitable for achieving goals at the right time. Rousan and Qawasmeh (2009) states that opportunities can be divided into three types those are added, supplementary, and explosive. Added opportunity is using the available resources to expand their benefits, so the revenues in this category are limited. Then, supplementary opportunity is where the organizations have to acquire new knowledge. Where explosive opportunity requires organizations to invest capital in RD to make large changes in organization standards and attributes. Threats Threats can define as a challenge caused by a negative attitude inconsistent with the organization common norms. Besides, it also can be viewed as any improper event of force in the external environment that causes harm to the organizations strategy. In addition, threats are a set of conditions, resources and capabilities that organizations need to pressured, but cannot influence or control over it, means which is out of our control. Why Use SWOT Analysis? SWOT analysis is use to develop a plan or find a solution for an organizations problem. This is because that takes consideration in many different internal and external factors which is maximizes the potential of the strengths and opportunities while minimizing the impact of the weaknesses and threats of an organization. When to Use SWOT Analysis? SWOT Analysis is uses when needs to developing a strategic plan or finding a solution to a problem. These tasks are performed by managers, designers or by the entire project team. Teamwork is particularly effective in providing structure, objectivity, clarity and tends to focus further discussions about strategy that might otherwise tend to wander. SWOT Analysis Usage SWOT analysis has been used by countless practitioners, marketing researchers, and is a familiar and popular tool for business marketing and strategy areas. This tool is used to assess alternatives and complex decision situations. It can be constructed quickly and can benefit from multiple viewpoints as a brainstorming exercise. There are three steps to use the SWOT analysis which is firstly analyses the internal factors and then analyses the external factors, and finally create a worksheet. First and foremost, internal analysis is examine the capabilities of an organizations strengths and weaknesses. The planner might list down ideas from projects that both successful and unsuccessful completely in the top row of the SWOT grid. Second step is external analysis known as environmental analysis Here have to analyses the opportunities and threats or obstacles to organizations performance that place at the bottom row of the SWOT grid. This has to carefully examine the market in which you intend to launch the product and analyze what the status of the competition. In addition, there have to make a worksheet by creating four quadrants which one each is strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats as shown on table 1.1. This allows planners better understand how strengths can be leveraged to realize new opportunities and understand how weaknesses can slow progress or magnify organizational threats. Then list specific items into the column correctly. But each column is limit to ten or fewer points per heading to avoid over generalizations. If there are more items are thought of, and then have to prioritize them so that only 10 top items for each category. Table 1.1 Quadrants for SWOT Analysis Positive Negative Internal Strengths 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 External Opportunities 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 Source: Adopted from Strategic Management: Concept and Cases, 2nd ed. (2006) Finally, the person has to know whether the strengths owned enable to take advantages from the opportunities. Besides, whether the strengths owned is able to overcome the threats that have been identified. Moreover, here also can overcome the identified threat by minimize the weaknesses. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE The comprehensive or idea concept of competitive advantage is defined in The Free Encyclopedia of Wikipedia (2010) as a position of a company in a competitive landscape that allows the company earning return on investments higher than the cost of investments. Competitive advantage also is a theory that seeks to address some of the criticisms of comparative advantages, and it should be relevant, unique, and sustainable. Competitive advantage occurs when an organization acquire or develops an attribute or combination of attributes that allows it to outperform its competitors. Besides, it is a gain of attributes and resources in perform at a higher level than others in the same industry or market. There are two basic types of competitive advantage which is cost advantages and differentiation advantages. Cost advantage is refer to an organization is able to deliver the same benefit as competitors but at a lower cost. However, cost and differentiation advantages are known as positional advantages since they describe the firms position in the industry as a leader in either cost or differentiation. The figure 1.1 shown the combination of the resource based and positioning views to illustrate the concept of competitive advantage. ResourcesFigure 1.1 A model of Competitive Advantage Value Creation Cost Advantage Or Differentiation Advantage Distinctive Competencies Capabilities Source: Adopted from According to figure 1.1, the firm must have resources and capabilities that are superior to those of its competitors. Without this superiority, the competitors simply could replicate what the firm was doing and any advantage quickly would disappear. Resources are use to creating a cost or differentiation advantages. The resources include patents and trademarks, proprietary know-how, installed customer base, and brand equity. Besides, the organization also has ability to utilize its resources effectively which refers to capability of the organization. Distinctive competencies are consisting resources and capabilities. Then the organization process value creating activities, the organization operate in upstream suppliers and downstream channel members. Competitive Strategy The four strategies relate to the extent to which the scope of a business activities are narrow verses broad and the extent to which a business seeks to differentiate its products. Competitive strategy consists of moves to attract customer, hold up competitive pressures, and strengthen organizations market position. It purposes are to earn a competitive advantage, cultivate clientele of loyal customers, and knock the sock off rivals, ethically and properly. For information, competitive strategy is narrower in scope than business strategy. This is because it focuses on managements plan to compete successfully. The four strategies are shown in the figure 1.2 in following. Degree of product differentiationFigure 1.2 Five Generic Competitive Strategies High Differentiation Focus Differentiation Best-Cost Provide Cost Focus Cost Leadership Low Broad Narrow Scope of Business Activities Source: Adopted from According to figure 1.2, low cost leadership striving to be the overall low-cost provider in industry. Besides, broad differentiation is striving to build customer loyalty by differentiating ones product offerings from rivals products. Low cost focus has to concentrating on a narrow buyer segment, out-competing rival on basic of lower costs. In addition, high differentiation is offering niche members a product or service customized to their needs. Some more, best cost provider strategy is striving to give customers more value for the money by combining an emphasis on low cost with an emphasis on upscale differentiation. Competitive Dimensions The organizations are care about the customers needs and wants. Therefore, the organizations apply the competitive dimensions which are transformed such needs and wants into targeted areas. These competitive advantages are consisting of four factors which are cost, quality, time, and flexibility as defines as following. Cost Organization must make some kind of compromise between the cost and the characteristics of their products and services. Basically, most of organization will choose to control the cost of material and employee compensation rates attempt to achieve higher levels of productivity. Quality Quality can be achieved by adding unique attributes to products to enhance their competitive attractiveness so as to benefit customers in the final stage. Quality can be achieves in two ways which is quality of design and quality of conformity such capability of organization to transform inputs to conformable outputs. Time Time is the most important factor to compete among each others. For example, delivery time can be a source of competitive advantages. This can be achieving through reducing the period f time between receiving and accepting customer orders and then delivers products or services to customers. Otherwise, the time period between product ideas generation till achieving the final design or production is consider as important factor. Flexibility Flexibility is defines as the ability of the processes to switch from one product to another or from one customer to another at least time and lowest cost or impact. Besides, flexibility also can view as the ability to adapt the production capacity to changes in the market demands. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SWOT ANALYSIS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE It is not intelligent to think that using organizational strengths to build a competitive advantage does not require through external environment analysis. The fact is whether an organization is strong or weak is a relative measure with comparison to its external environment. It is widely proven that organizations can achieve a competitive advantage by relying on organizational strengths and interacting with the strategic choice so as to make use of opportunities and avoid threats or override weakness or both. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategy management is the process of specifying an organizations objectives, developing policies and plans to achieve these objectives, and allocating resources to implement the plans. It is the highest level of managerial activity, usually performed by the companys top management as well as executive team. It provides overall direction to the whole organization. An organizations strategy must be appropriate for its resources, circumstances, and objectives. The objective of an overall corporate strategy is to carry out its mission effectively and efficiently. A good corporate strategy should integrate an organizations goals, policies, and action sequences or tactics into cohesive whole. Strategic planning was first brought into practice in the private sector in 1960-1970, followed by the public sector some 10-20 years later. According to Diskiene, Galiniene, and Marcinskas (2008), Strategic planning gives quite a clear description of the use of the SWOT strategy analysis tools. There are also involved several reasons of strategic plans fail where discuss in problem statement section. PROBLEM STATEMENT SWOT analysis usually reflect a persons existing position and view point, which can misused to justify a previously decided course of action rather then used as a means to open up new possibilities. It is significant to mention that sometimes threat can also be view as opportunities, depending on the people or groups involved. Finding from Helms and Nixon (2010) clearly indicate that an optimist is one who sees an opportunity in every difficulty. Adversely, a pessimist is one who sees difficulty in every opportunity. SWOTs can allow companies to take lazy course and took for fit rather than to stretch, they look for strengths that opportunities yet ignore the opportunities they do not feel they can use to their advantage. A more active approach would be to involve identifying the most attractive opportunities and then plan to stretch the company to meet these opportunities. This would make strategy a challenge to the organization rather than a fit between its existing strength and the opportunities (Helms Nixon, 2010). Helms and Nixon (2010) points out that categorization of variables into one of the four SWOT quadrants is also challenging. This is because if the strengths that are not maintained may become weaknesses. Some more, if opportunities not taken in the right time, but adopted by competitors, may become threats. Helms and Nixon (2010) also agrees there is confusing in classifying issues such often threat to a business can be called opportunities but setback and catastrophes are real problems and cannot be classified as opportunities. So the opportunities is a favorable solution to a problem and not problem itself. Besides, criteria to assign a variable to one of the four quadrants may be more difficult to clarity if the methodology is not used for a company but for a country. While SWOT is useful to profile and enumerate issues, it does not provide actual strategies to implement to take advantages of opportunities while leveraging strengths. In short, it is no strategic direction provided. This is because SWOT is only using simple list of words or point form without clear detail may be difficult to interpret. The brief format of the SWOT tool may be an oversimplification of a business situation that is more complex. The SWOT tool does not represent the complete and entire analysis so it may lead to inaccurate results (Helms and Nixon, 2010). Helms and Nixon (2010) states that SWOT is need to use with additional tools of analysis which is combinations with other strategic tools and models in order to get more accurate results. Many researchers suggest that Porters 5-Forces Analysis is a well internal analysis which focuses on the organizations external environment. Hence, 5-Foces analysis is applied more specifically to an organizations competitive environment. According to The Free Encyclopedia of Wikipedia (2010), strategic plans fail is consists of many reasons which can refer to the organization failure to understand the customers wants and needs. Otherwise, organization inability to predict environmental reaction which what is the competitor recently doing. Besides, the organization also over-estimates the resource competence. This can be said that the organization is does not know whether the staff, equipment, and processes can handle the new strategy. In addition, the organization is failure to coordinate, failure to obtain senior management commitment, failure to obtain employee commitment and failure to follow the plain. Finally, the organization might under-estimate of time requirements. In the business arena the grouping of internal and external issues is a frequent starting point for strategic planning. This is a most important starting point for implementing the SWOT analysis. If fail to categories or indentified it, then the whole analysis becomes less accurate for organization. In fact, the organization will lose the opportunities to compete in the market with the competitors. Therefore, the planner or top management have to identified the external and internal factors which strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats carefully in order to getting accurate result. CONCLUSION RECOMANDATION

Monday, August 19, 2019

Daewoo Group and Financial Business Essay -- GCSE Business Marketing C

Daewoo Group and Financial Business Problem Definition Daewoo group started as a small textile company and in just 20 years developed into second largest Korean chaebol ( family owned conglomerate). It had over 250000 employers worldwide, over 30 domestic companies and 300 overseas subsidiaries, generating sales of more than 100 billion dollars annually. However, in 1999 it seemed that the ‘golden days’ of Daewoo were over as it was faced with over 50 billion dollars dept and had to decide to sell some of its business to carry on. Can Daewoo really survive and if yes, how? The roots of Daewoo’s crisis are in: a) Korean Economic System’s Structure, Chaebols and Asian Crisis b) Daewoo corporate structure, Kim Woo-Choong and his policies The main problem is that Korean economic system is ready for change and already changing, so does the government and its policies. However, the chaebols such as Daewoo are living in the past and find it difficult to adapt to changes. The question is whether there is any place in a changing Korea for chaebols at all or they will be soon replaced by smaller but more efficient companies? Problem Justification Korean Economic System, Chaebols and Asian crisis: South Korea’s mad rush economic growth was initiated by late dictator Park Chung-hee in the early 1970. Park saw export growth as the key for economic growth. He provided cheap loans and tax benefits to nurture Daewoo and other Korean business into conglomerates that mass produced for export markets( autos). Most of Chaebols were family owned and all of this families were connected to the government which would give them lots of support and get their loyalty. As a trouble would appear ,as in example of Daewoo problem in the 1980s when Daewoo shipbuilding made losses that threaten the collapse of the whole group, the government stepped in to save conglomerate and to provide emergency loans, chaebols could always count on the government to help. So they would continue to borrow money from government owned banks. The bank were forced to continue borrowing money to â€Å"Korean Losers† and never got paid back. It continued ... ...he best solution would be the government to come up with the plan of restructuring Daewoo ( force it to sell off most of its businesses and concentrate on the key once) and for Daewoo to accept the plan as soon as possible. Also government should push on the chaebols to restructure ( mainly to cut off their size and concentrate on the most important businesses) because there is no place for old-style conglomerates in changing Korea, if they stay the same they will face the same problem as Daewoo did and will also badly affect future economic development of Korea. Korean government did come up with the plan of restructuring Daewoo in cutting down its size by selling off its businesses, as an example selling Daewoo Motors to General Motors and etc., giving independence to some of its big divisions such as shipbuilding. But this plan came too late and Daewoo did not implement it until it really got bankrupt. There is not Daewoo group any more. Most of it was sold and what is left is now called Daewoo International and has its main businesses in International Trade, Information, Project Organising, Research Development and some other ( www.daewoo

Internet Censorship Essay - Censoring the Internet -- Argumentative Pe

Censoring the Internet      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   From music to television, censorship has played a major role in how the public is exposed to certain material. Now that our world is entering into a new technology era, the Internet is now in the middle of the censorship issue. Internet access is now one of the fastest ways to communicate with others, obtain information on virtually anything, and purchase items without having to leave your home. As more and more people get connected to this cyber superhighway, concern for the content of material has become a big issue. Since so many children are exposed to the Internet, some material should not be accessible with a simple click of a mouse. In order to protect our younger people from being exposed to mature and explicit material over the Internet, these sites should have a warning posted before one can go into the site.    Since putting such material on the Internet is protected by the first amendment, the federal government cannot stop graphic data from being distributed in such a way. Although the government cannot stop the distribution, members of Congress and the House of Representatives are working on bills that will filter out such si... ...not for children.          Works Cited Grace, Kevin Michael. " Sex-Floggers". Newsmagazine. 12 Dec. 2000. 43. Academic Search  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Elite Online. EBSCOHost. 2 Feb. 2001. Rogers, Michael and Norman Oder. "PA House Passes PL Filtering Bill." Library Journal. Dec. 2000. 18. Academic Search Elite. EBSCOHost. 19 Feb. 2001. Santorum, Rick. " Bill to Protect Children from Pornography on the Internet Signed into Law Today Communities Will Have Flexibility to Develop Their   Own Internet Use Policy." FDCH Press Release. 12 Dec. 2000. Academic Search Elite. EBSCOHost. 19 Feb. 2001.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Phrenology :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Phrenology is basically the study of personality through the study of the shape of the skull. The basis of this theory is that the brain conforms to the shape of the head and its contours. This pseudoscience says that because we have isolated where different parts of personality come from we can tell how dominant this trait would be in a person’s life by the size of the piece of the brain. We have since proven that this theory is not true.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Franz Joseph Gall is considered to be the founder of the direct scientific link between the morphology of the skull and personality traits. Gall was one of the first scientists to consider the brain the home of all mental activities. His main work was called The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular. In this article he put forth five points that phrenology was based on in general. 1. That moral and intellectual faculties and innate. 2. That their exercise or manifestation depends on organization. 3. That the brain is an organ of all the propensities, sentiments, and faculties. 4. The brain is composed of many particular organs as there are different propensities, sentiments, and faculties which differ from one another. 5. That the form of the head or cranium represents the form of the brain, and thus represents the relative development of the brain organs. Gall linked the faculties with precise brain localizations through careful observation and expensive experimental measures.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Johann Spurzheim’s contribution to phrenology was also great. He helped Gall in a study of brain injuries with the phrenology concept Gall had created. He also studied many cases of aphasia following victim’s cranial injuries in battle. In 1832, he arrived in America, which was at that time desperate for insight into human personality, and started on a lecture circuit that eventually killed him only six months into it.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  While Spurzheim was in America he managed to inspire two young, frustrated evangelists whose names were Lorenzo Niles Fowler and Orson S. Fowler. These two are largely responsible for spreading phrenology throughout the country. They traveled from town to town carrying the truth of phrenology. They offered lectures, readings, and to evaluate the charteristics of total strangers through the bumps and valleys on their heads. Soon everyone from small-town folk to the rich and famous were getting readings. It became a fad throughout America.